Blanc I. Jean Joseph Louis, a French political and historical writer, born in Madrid, where his father was inspector general of finance un~ der Joseph Bonaparte, Oct. 28, 1813. His mother was a Corsiean, and the sister of the celebrated Pozzo di Borgo. He was educated for the diplomatic service; but his father lost his fortune in the revolution of 1830, and in 1882 the son became tutor to a private family at Arras. Removing to Paris in 1834, he became editor of the Bon Sens, a periodical of considerable influence. He left it in 1838, and established La Revue du Progres, to promote the combination of the democratic associations and to further the cause of political reform A treatise on the "Organization of Labor," first published in this journal, appeared separately in 1840, and gave him a position as one of the ablest writers of the socialistic school. He maintained that industry ought to be con-ducted not for individual profit, but for the benefit of the community, each person contributing to the common stock according to his capabilities, and receiving from it according to his wants, under the supervision of the government.

This work was followed soon after by his Histoire de dix ans, in which the political incidents of the period from 1830 to 1840 were described with remarkable animation and sagacity, and the policy of Louis Philippe and the ministers of the bourgeoisie was criticised with scathing partisan logic. The first two volumes of his equally brilliant Histoire de la revolution francaise (completed in 12 vols, in 1862) appeared shortly before the outbreak of the revolution of February, 1848, in bringing about which the works of Louis Blanc were probably more influential than those of any-democratic writer of the epoch. He became a member of the provisional government, and procured the adoption of a decree abolishing capital punishment for political offences. He also contended for the creation of a ministry of progress, and, not being able to carry that measure, withdrew from the government, but at the request of his colleagues took back his resignation, and became the president of a commission to consider the labor question, which held its sittings at the Luxembourg palace, but accomplished nothing.

He was accused of being implicated in the insurrectionary movements of May and June, and on the night of Aug. 25 his prosecution was authorized by the constituent assembly, of which he had been elected a member. He escaped to England, where he remained in voluntary exile until the downfall of Napoleon III. He then returned to France, was chosen a member of the national assembly (1871), and acted with the radical party, though he held himself aloof from the commune. Among his publications written in exile are Pages d'histoire de la revolution de Fevrier (1850), Revelations historiques (1859), and Histoire de la revolution de 1848 (2 vols., 1870), all chiefly devoted to the defence of his own course in the February revolution, and Lettres sur l'Angleterre (2 vols., 1860). In 1849-'51 he also edited and almost entirely wrote the Nouveau Monde, a monthly journal (Paris). II. Augnste Alexandre Charles, brother of the preceding, born at Castres, Nov. 17, 1815. He obtained distinction as an engraver and art critic, and was at the head of the department of fine arts in the ministry of the interior from 1848 to 1852. In 1845 he published the first volume of L'Histoire des peintres francais au XIX. siecle, which has never been finished.

With the assistance of eminent writers he has continued the publication of Armengaud's illustrated Histoire des peintres de toutes les ecoles (1849-'69), and is the sole author of its biographies of French and Dutch painters. His other works include Les peintres des fetes galantes (1853); Le tresor de la curiosite (2 vols., 1857-'8); L'aeuvre complet de Rembrandt (2 vols., 1859-'63); and Grammaire des arts du dessin (1867). He became editor-in-chief of the Gazette des Beaux Arts, founded in 1859, succeeded Count Walewski in 1868 as a member of the academy of fine arts, and in 1869 delivered lectures in Switzerland.