Philo Judaeus, a Jewish philosopher of Alexandria, born probably in Egypt a few years before Christ. He was of the priestly family of Aaron, and was sent at the head of an embassy to Caligula, after the massacre of the Jews in Egypt, to defend that people against the calumnies of Apion. He lived and taught at Alexandria, enjoying great personal popularity, and exercising by his writings a wide influence upon the opinions of his Jewish brethren. His son married a daughter of King Agrippa. Philo belonged probably to the sect of the Pharisees, but departed widely from their methods of interpreting the Scriptures, the narratives of which he allegorized in a peculiar way. He was a Platonist, and endeavored to reconcile the philosophy of the Grecian sage with the records of the Hebrew lawgiver. His purpose was to show that the Mosaic revelation contained in germ all that was afterward developed into the various forms of Greek philosophy. In his characteristic doctrine of the Logos and of the ideal and archetypal world, he anticipated the speculations of the Gnostics. The best edition of his works is that of Thomas Mangey (2 vols., London, 1742), but additional treatises were discovered by Cardinal Mai (1818), and others exist in Armenian versions (Venice, 1822). There is an English translation of Philo by Mr. 0. D. Yonge in Bonn's "Ecclesiastical Library" (4 vols. 12mo). - See Gfrorer, Philo und die alexandriiiische Theosophie (1835), and Bruno Bauer, Philo, Strauss und Penan und das Ur-christenthum (1874).