Raymond Raimundo Lullio (Lully), a Spanish philosopher, surnamed " the enlightened doctor," born in Palma on the island of Majorca about 1235, killed at Bougiah in Algeria in 1315. He was the son of a Barcelonese nobleman in the service of the king of Ara-gon, and was trained to the profession of arms. After a career of scandalous excesses, at the age of 30 he suddenly renounced the world and its pleasures, divided his property among his family and friends, and, assuming the habit of a Franciscan monk, retired into a solitary place for the purpose of preparing himself for the labors and duties of a missionary, to which, he said, Christ had summoned him in a vision. Here he studied philosophy, theology, ancient languages, the philosophical works of Averroes and other Moorish writers, and invented a system of dialectics by which he hoped to reform science and convert Mohammedans, Jews, and pagans to Christianity. Inspired, as he said, by another vision, he published in 1276 his Ars Magna, in which his system is unfolded at length, and immediately went in search of patrons and proselytes. The remainder of his life was one long and toilsome pilgrimage.
He visited many of the principal cities of Europe, sometimes endeavoring to establish institutions to teach his doctrines, and sometimes attempting to incite a general crusade against the Moslems. He twice visited northern Africa and disputed with the Mohammedan doctors, and was driven from the country. While making a third attempt, he was stoned to death at Bougiah in his 80th year. The body of the aged martyr, whom his countrymen deemed worthy of canonization, was brought to his native place for burial. His principal works are the Ars Magna, or, as it is usually termed, the Ars Lulliana, and the Arbor Sci-entiae. The former is a kind of logical machine for combining certain classes of ideas, and thereby solving scientific questions. By means of letters, figures of squares, triangles, and circles, and of sections (camerae), an indefinite number of formulas is obtained, serving as keys to metaphysical problems. The Arbor Sciential is a kind of encyclopaedia, containing the application of his method to all sciences. It is impossible to enumerate all his works, but they are said to have been more than one man could transcribe in the course of an ordinary life.
He has been variously regarded as a sainted martyr and champion of the church, a heretic, a philosopher surpassing Aristotle, or a shallow empiric. He had more erudition than judgment, and his system of metaphysics was so interwoven with mystical fancies, that the apparent regularity of his formulas ill conceals the incoherency of his ideas. He wrote in a barbarous style, which repels the reader. An edition of his works in 10 volumes, edited by Salzinger, was published at Mentz in 1721-'42.