Ricrarees, Or Ricarees, called also Aricaras, Rees, and Black Pawnees, a tribe of Indians of the Pawnee family, living on the Upper Missouri. They are said to call themselves Star-rahhé and also Pauani. They are an offshoot of the Pawnees of Platte valley, Nebraska, from whom they separated about a century ago. They were originally ten large tribes, but were reduced by smallpox in 1791 and by the hostility and oppression of the Tetons and other Sioux. They were warlike, the men generally going naked, their heads adorned with feathers. They came into collision with the whites before 1810. Twelve years after they were near Cannon Ball river, in two palisaded villages of 141 lodges. On June 2, 1823, they attacked Gen. Ashley's party of traders, killing and wounding 23. Col. Leavenworth was sent against them, and defeated them in a severe battle, Aug. 9. They made peace, but fled during the night of the 13th, and their towns were fired by the traders. The Ricka-rees went to the Platte, and as the Sioux seized their country became wanderers. By 1825 they were again on the Missouri, where a treaty was made with them, July 11. As they still remained hostile, all trade with them was closed in 1831, when they again became wanderers.
Some years later they returned from the Platte and united with the remnants of the Mandans, and have since lived with them and the Minnetarees, engaging largely in agriculture. In 1862 they removed to Fort Berthold. Daring the civil war a number served as scouts in the army. By the treaty of July 27, 1866, $75,000 a year is to be expended for the three tribes; and by executive order of April 12, 1870, a reservation of 8,640,000 acres in N. W. Dakota and E. Montana was assigned to them. They have begun to erect log huts instead of earth lodges, and have been assigned to the care of the American board of foreign missions, but up to 1875 had no missionary or school. They were reported in 1874 at 975, though Dr. Matthews estimates them at only 800.