Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, a duchy of the German empire, consisting of two principal parts separated from each other by Prussia and Meiningen. The northern division comprises the former duchy of Gotha, and is bounded by Prussia, Schwarzburg, Weimar, and Meiningen. The southern, comprising the duchy of Coburg, is bounded by Bavaria and Meiningen. Area, 760 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 174,339, almost all Protestants. Both parts of the duchy are mountainous and have beautiful valleys and forests; the highest peaks of the Thuringian Forest are found in Gotha. The duchy is watered by the Gera, Nesse, Unstrut, and Ilm. Grain, flax, and timber are the chief products. In the mountainous parts of Gotha pitch, tar, and lampblack are made. There are manufactories of linen, woollen goods, cutlery, porcelain, and wooden toys, iron founderies, and beet-sugar refineries. The duchy has one vote in the federal council of Germany, and sends two deputies to the German Reichstag. The local diet or legislature consists of one chamber with 21 members, who are chosen by the special diets of the two duchies, Gotha choosing 14 and Coburg 7. The present duke, Ernest II. (born June 21, 1818), succeeded his father in 1844; as he has no children, the heir presumptive to the throne is his nephew Alfred, duke of Edinburgh, second son of the duke's brother Prince Albert and Queen Victoria of Great Britain. The ducal line of Gotha, which was founded in 1681, by Frederick, eldest son of Ernest the Pious of Al-tenburg and Gotha, became extinct in 1825. After protracted negotiations between the other Saxon houses, Gotha was given to the ducal line of Coburg-Saalfeld, which had been founded by a younger son of Ernest the Pious. The duke of Coburg-Saalfeld in turn ceded Saalfeld to the duke of Meiningen, and assumed the title of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.