1. A N. government of European Russia, bordering on Olonetz, Archangel, Tobolsk (from which it is separated by the Ural mountains), Perm, Viatka, Kostroma, Yaroslav, and Novgorod; area, 155,498 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,003,039. The surface, stretching across more than half the breadth of northern Russia, is an undulating plain, mostly covered with woods, marshes, and sands, except in the east, where it is traversed by offshoots of the Ural. It contains Lake Kubinskoye in the west, and is watered by the Petchora, Mezen, Dwina, Sukhona, Vitchegda, and Pinega, tributaries of the Arctic ooean or of the White sea. The climate is very severe, and only a small portion of the soil is cultivated, producing chiefly rye, barley, hemp, flax, and pulse. The chief mineral products are iron, copper, salt, granite, and marble. Horses and cattle are reared, and bears, wolves, and deer are hunted. The inhabitants consist of Russians, Voguls, Samoyeds, and some other tribes, many of them uncivilized. The exports comprise furs, timber, turpentine, and pitch.

The chief towns besides the capital are Ustiug Velikoi and Totma.

II. A City

A City, capital of the government, on the Vologda, a tributary of the Sukhona, about 340 m. E. S. E. of St. Petersburg; pop. in 1867,17,859. It has more than 50 churches, a priests' seminary, a gymnasium, and other schools, and 40 manufactories, chiefly of tallow, soap, crystal, glass, leather, and linen. In the 13th century it became part of the republic of Novgorod, and was a centre of trade with Asia. English merchants were established here in the 16th century, and previous to the conquest of the Baltic ports Vologda was the great emporium for traffic. The trade is still active, though less important than formerly. Offenders were banished to Vologda until it was superseded by Siberia as a place of exile, and it is still occasionally assigned as a residence to persons expelled from the capital.