I. Mikhail, Count

Count Mikhail, a Russian statesman, born in 1710, died in Moscow in 1767. He was descended from Gabriel Vorontzoff, who fell in 1678 at the siege of Tchigrin, Little Russia. He became a lover of the empress Elizabeth, who arranged a marriage for him with her cousin, a niece of Catharine I., and in 1744 she made him vice chancellor and minister of foreign affairs. The emperor Charles VII. made him and two of his brothers counts of the German empire. He negotiated important treaties, and finally became chancellor, but lost his influence under Catharine II.

II. Mikhail

Mikhail, a Russian soldier, born in St. Petersburg in May, 1782, died in Odessa in November, 1856. He was a son of Count Simon Vorontzoff, ambassador in London, and his sister married in 1808 the earl of Pembroke, father of Sidney Herbert. He early fought in the Caucasus and against the Turks, distinguished himself in the campaigns against Napoleon, and was wounded at Borodino. Subsequently he commanded the Russian contingent in France. In 1823 he became governor general of New (South) Russia and Bessarabia, in 1826 cooperated with Ribeaupierre in the treaty of Akerman, and in 1828 replaced Menshikoff, who had been wounded at the siege of Varna. In 1844 he was appointed governor of the Caucasus, and in 1845 penetrated to Dargo, Shamyl's stronghold, and pushed operations against him, though Shamyl held out till 1859. While his command obtained several advantages in the eastern war of 1853, he was himself disabled by ill health, which in October, 1854, prompted his withdrawal. In 1856, at the coronation of Alexander II., he received the title of field marshal and the governorship of Odessa, where a monument was erected to him as well as at Tiflis.