Barby, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Saxony, on the left bank of the Elbe, 15m. S. E. of Magdeburg; pop. in 1871, 5,212. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the manufacture of woollens and linens. The Moravians in 1749 established at Barby a Padagogium (educational institution), which in 1809 was transferred to Niesky in Lusatia. The town has a normal school and a hospital for the blind. It was formerly the seat of the counts of Barby, who became extinct in 1659.

Barca, Or Barcas

Barca, Or Barcas, an epithet applied to Ha-milcar and other Carthaginian generals, and supposed to signify "lightning," like the Hebrew Barak.

Barca, Or Baree

Barca, Or Baree, an ancient inland city of Cyrenaica, founded by revolted Cyrenaeans and Libyans about 554 B. 0. Arcesilaus II., king of Cyrene, was signally defeated in an attempt to punish this secession, and the power of Barca was soon extended to the seacoast and W. toward Carthage. About 514 B. C. Arcesilaus III. of Cyrene, having taken refuge with his father-in-law Alazir, king of Barca, was slain by the citizens. His mother Phere-tima induced the Persian satrap of Egypt to besiege Barca, and after it was captured caused numbers of the citizens to be crucified around the walls, on which she fixed as bosses the breasts of their wives. Many others were made slaves and removed to Bactria. Under the Ptolemies most of the remaining inhabitants were removed to the new city of Ptolemais (now Tolmeta) on the coast. The old town was still in existence in the 2d century of our era, and its ruins are now traced near the village of Merjeh.

Barckhatsen, Or Barchnsen, Johann Konrad

Barckhatsen, Or Barchnsen, Johann Konrad, a German physician and chemist, born at Horn, in Westphalia, March 16, 1666, died Oct. 1, 1723. He studied medicine and pharmacy at Berlin, Mentz, and Vienna, and afterward accompanied the Venetian troops into the Mo-rea. In 1703 he was made professor of chemistry at Utrecht. He wrote several treatises on chemistry, embodying the result of important researches, a history of medical sects, Collecta Medicinae Practicaae generalis (Amsterdam, 1715), etc.


Bardas, a patrician of Constantinople, brother of Theodora, the wife of the emperor The-ophilus, and uncle to the emperor Michael III., killed April 21, 866. On the death of Theophi-lus (842) he was appointed tutor to the young prince Michael, in conjunction with Theoctis-tus and Manuel. He did much to revive science, but caused Theoctistus to be slain and Manuel to be banished, threw his sister the empress into prison, exiled the patriarch Ignatius, and assumed the title of Ciesar (856). His cruelty and arrogance raised a bitter opposition, and Michael at last consented to his assassination by Basil the Macedonian, afterward emperor.

Bardesanes, Or Bar-Deisan

Bardesanes, Or Bar-Deisan, a Gnostic, who flourished at Edessa, Syria, in the latter half of the 2d century, and founded a sect designated as Bardesanists. The common opinion is that Bardesanes was a disciple of Valentine, but Neandcr thinks that both Marcion and Bardesanes drew from the same fountain as Valentine, the Syrian Gnosticism. From the fact that Bardesanes wrote afterward against the Gnostics, and then, still later, showed himself a Gnostic again, he has been accused of being fickle; and Eusebius says of him that, although he refuted at one timeniost of the opinions of Valentine, "he did not entirely wipe away the filth of his old heresy." Neander thinks there is no evidence that Bardesanes was other than a Gnostic in the whole of his career as a theologian. He believed the devil to be self-existent and independent; that Christ was born of a woman, but brought his body from heaven; and he denied the resurrection of the human body.