Francois Jules Pictet

Francois Jules Pictet, a Swiss naturalist, born in Geneva about 1800, died there in April, 1872. He was professor of zoology and anatomy in the academy of Geneva, and besides many other works published Traite elemen-taire de paleontologie (4 vols., Geneva, 1844-'6), and Melanges paleontologiques (1863). - Among many of his relatives of scientific eminence is Adolphe Pictet (born in 1799), professor of aesthetics and linguistics at Geneva, and author of Les origines indo-europeennes, ou les Aryas primitifs (2 vols., 1859-'63).

Francois Laurent

Francois Laurent, a Belgian historian, born in Luxemburg, July 8, 1810. He studied at Louvain and Liege, where he graduated as a lawyer in 1832. He practised his profession in his native city till 1834, when he became connected with the ministry of justice in Brussels. In 1835 he accepted the professorship of civil law in the university of Ghent, and he was sustained by the government in this post notwithstanding his anti-ultramontane writings. His principal work, Etudes sur l'hstoire de l'humanite (14 vols., Brussels and Paris, 1860-'68), is a collective edition of his publications on the various eras of history.

Francois Le Coignenx De Bachaumont

Francois le Coignenx de Bachaumont, a French writer, born in Paris in 1624, plied in 1702. He was a councillor in the parliament of Paris, and acquired celebrity by his satirical publications, in prose and verse, against Mazarin. He was the first to apply the term frondeurs (slingers) to the cardinal's adversaries, comparing them to boys throwing stones from slings. When the parliament of Paris became reconciled with Mazarin, Bachaumont sold his councillor's commission. With his intimate friend Chapelle he travelled in southern France, and the witty narrative of the journey, their joint production, was separately published in 1704 and 1732, while other writings of Bachaumont are included in Chapelle's works (1755).

Francois Marie Anguste Caffarelli

Francois Marie Anguste Caffarelli, a French soldier, born at Falga, in the present department of Haute-Garonne, Oct. 7, 1766, died at Leschelles, Aisne, Jan. 23, 1849. He was descended from a patrician Italian family. After the revolution of 1789 he entered the French army, and from Napoleon's regard for his brother was promoted to be aide-de-camp and brigadier.general; and in reward for his having prevailed on the pope in 1804 to officiate personally at the emperor's coronation in Paris, he was appointed governor of the Tuileries (1805) and general of division. From 1806 to 1810 he was minister of war and the navy in the kingdom of Italy, and from 1811 to 1813 he distinguished himself in the peninsular war against the Spanish and English. He was made a peer in 1831.

Francois Marie Daudin

Francois Marie Daudin, a French naturalist, born in Paris about 1774, died in 1804. Deprived from childhood of the use of his legs, he gave himself to study, especially of natural history. He published a number of works and essays, of which the most extensive is the Histoire naturelle des reptiles (8 vols. 8vo, 1802-4), designed as a sequel to Buffbn's work. His wife assisted him in the preparation of his works, for which she drew the illustrations. She died of consumption, and he followed her within a few days.