Haute-Garonne , (Upper Garonne), a S. department of France, formed from the ancient provinces of Languedoc and Gascony, bordering on Spain and the departments of Tarn-et-Garonne, Tarn, Aude, Ariege, Hautes-Pyre-nees, and Gers; area, 2,429 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 470,362. The N. portion is nearly level, but the S. is covered with lofty mountains, mostly spurs from the Pyrenees, one of which, Mont Maladetta, rises to the height of 11,162 ft. The principal rivers are the Garonne, Neste, Salat, Ariege, Save, and Tarn. The climate of the lowlands is in general mild, but that of the mountainous districts is severe in winter. The soil of the valleys and plains is very fertile. The chief vegetable productions are wheat, maize, millet, rye, flax, hemp, potatoes, garlic, fruit, and timber, with which the declivities of the mountains are thickly covered. A large quantity of wine is made, generally of inferior quality. The department is rich in minerals; iron, copper, lead, antimony, bismuth, zinc, coal, rock crystals, slate, gypsum, marble, and granite are found in abundance. The staple manufactures are coarse woollens, canvas, calico, leather, tinware, earthenware, copperware, scythes, files, mathematical instruments, glass, gunpowder, cannon, tobacco, wine, and brandy.
It is divided into the arrondissements of Toulouse, Muret, Ville-franche, and St. Gaudens. Capital, Toulouse.