See Peru, and QuichUa.


See Frankincense.


Incest (carnal commerce between a man and woman who are related to each other in any of the degrees within which marriage is prohibited by law. It rests with positive law to determine these degrees; for although marriages between those nearly related are clearly opposed to the law of nature, yet it is difficult to fix the point at which they cease to be so. With rare exceptions all civilized communities have agreed in regarding marriage between brother and sister and between those lineally related as unnatural and offensive; but beyond this point the invalidity must depend upon positive statutes. The fact that one of the parties is illegitimate is immaterial, as it is the nearness in blood that is regarded, and the repulsive nature of the relation is not diminished by the circumstance that the relationship comes through unlawful intercourse. Incest is a criminal offence in all civilized countries, and in England and the United States is punished as a felony.


Incunabula (Lat., cradle), in bibliography, books printed prior to about 1500, of which there are estimated to be about 15,000. The fullest account of them is found in Ludwig Hain's Repertorium Bibliographicum, in quo Libri omnes ab Arte Typographica inventa usque ad Annum MD Typis expressi Ordine Alphabetico recensentur (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1826-38). For French incunabula see G. Bru-net's La France litteraire au XVe siecle (Paris, 1865).

India Rubber

See Caoutchouc.


See American Indians.

Indian Bean

See Catalpa.

Indian Caucasus

Indian Caucasus. See Hindoo-Koosii.

Indian Corn

See Maize.

Indian Corn #1

See Maize.

Indian Cress

See Nasturtium.

Indian Dye

See Puccoon.

Indian Fig

Indian Fig (Opuntia vulgaris). See Cactus.

Indian Poke

See Hellebore.

Indian Tobacco

See Lobelia.

Indorsement, Or Endorsement

See Exchange, Promissory Note, and Negotiable Paper.


See Lemur.


Infante (Lat. infans, infant), a title given in Spain and Portugal to the royal princes, the eldest of whom, the heir apparent to the crown, is alone called el principe, the prince. The feminine form of the word, infanta, is applied to the royal princesses. The term infante occurs in documents of the 10th century.


See Bronchitis, vol. iii., p. 312.


Infusoria (the name formerly given to numberless kinds of microscopic animalcules, the most minute of created beings, so called from their being especially abundant in water infused with vegetable matter. From their exhibiting the simplest forms of animal life, they were grouped together under the division protozoa; but such a division, supposed to differ from all other animals in producing no eggs, does not exist in nature. Many are ascertained to be locomotive alga) or seaweeds; others are acephalous mollusks, embryonic worms, or Crustacea; they form favorite test objects for microscopes, and have been carefully studied by Bailey, Ehrenberg, and others. The majority may be classed among worms near the turbel-larias or flat worms; they propagate by eggs, buds, or transverse fission, and some present the phenomena of alternate generation. (See Animalcules.)