Socorro, a S. W. county of New Mexico, bordering on Arizona, intersected in the east by the Rio Grande, and containing the sources of the Gila river; area, about 11,500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6,603. There are fertile valleys along the streams, but the greater part of the county is mountainous and unproductive. Gold, iron, and other minerals are found. The chief productions in 1870 were 26,889 bushels of wheat, 26,860 of Indian corn, 24,006 lbs. of wool, and 2,150 gallons of wine. There were 271 horses, 1,313 milch cows, 1,628 working oxen, 1,514 other cattle, 23,500 sheep, 547 swine, and 4 flour mills. Capital, Socorro.

Soda Powders

See Effervescence.

Soda Water

See Mineral Waters.


Sodermanlaad, a S. E. laen or province of Sweden, bounded N. by Lake Maelar, E. by the laen of Stockholm, which embraces a portion of the old province of Sodermanland, and S. E. by the Baltic; area, 2,603 sq. m.; pop. in 187-4, 138,696. It is generally level and fertile, and abounds in inland lakes, including part of Lake Hjelmar. Agriculture is the principal occupation, and the fisheries and lumber trade are of some importance. Capital, Nykoping.


Sodom, in Biblical history, one of the five cities of the plain or valley of Siddim, destroyed on account of the wickedness of the inhabitants. (See Dead Sea).


Soest, a town of Prussia, in the province of Westphalia, 13 m. X. by E. of Arnsbercr; pop. in 1871, 12,404. It has a Catholic cathedral, and among the Protestant churches the restored Weisenkirche is remarkable for its pure Gothic architecture. There are many breweries and several manufactories. The principal trade is in grain. The plain surrounding the town contains 10 villages, and is very fertile. Soest was once a Hanseatic town of great importance, but has never recovered from the effects of the thirty years' war.


Sogdiana, an ancient country of Asia, S. E. of the sea of Aral (Oxianus Lacus). It was separated from Bactria on the southwest by the Oxus, and from Scythia on the north by the Jaxartes, thus embracing a part of modern Bokhara. The Persians conquered it in the time of Cyrus. Alexander invaded it in 329 B. C, and established some colonies. After his death it belonged to Syria, and subsequently fell to the Turkomans.


Sohar, a seaport town of Oman, Arabia, capital of the province of Batina, on the sea of Oman, 125 m. X. W. of Muscat; pop. about 20,000. It is surrounded by a wall, defended by a few guns. The castle, a handsome building with three walls around it, occupies a low hill, from which an open space planted with trees extends to the sea. The market place is large and regular, and contains good shops. Many of the houses are of two and three stories and well built. The roadstead is well protected, and offers good anchorage, but large vessels have to lie some distance off shore. Outside the walls is an open sandy space, but beyond it are gardens with shade trees and running waters. The chief manufactures of the town are arms, stuffs of wool, cotton, and silk, carpets, and coverlets. Sohar once had a large trade, but it has been injured by the prosperity of Muscat, and many of its buildings are now in a semi-ruinous condition.