Calvados, a department of France, bounded N. by the English channel, E. by the department of Eure, S. by Orne, and W. by La Manche; area, 2,130 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 454,-012. It is formed from a part of the old province of Normandy, and takes its name from a reef of rocks which extends about 20 m. along the coast. The coast has bays, and is in some parts low and sandy, in others characterized by bluffs and headlands. . The interior is a fertile, rolling country, becoming somewhat hilly toward the south. The rivers run N. to the channel, and are the Touques, Dives, Orne, Seulle, and Dr6me, none of which are navigable for any considerable distance. Agriculture is prosperous, and large crops of wheat are raised. Apples are cultivated for cider. The pasturage is excellent, and cattle are fattened for the markets of Paris, Rouen, and Caen. Coal is mined at Littry, and iron, marble, and slate are found. The principal manufactures are lace, linen, cutlery, cotton cloth, earthenware, and hats. There are extensive oyster beds on the coast, and the mackerel and herring fisheries are of some importance.
The railway from Cherbourg traverses the department to the mouth of the Seine, and the export trade is mostly carried on through Havre. The department is divided into the arrondissements of Caen, Bayeux, Vire, Falaise, Lisieux, and Pont-l'Eveque. Capital, Caen.