Cardinal York Stuart Henry Benedict Maria Clement, the last of the Stuart family in the male line, born in Rome in 1725, died at Fras-cati in 1807. He was the son of the pretender James Francis Edward, who created him duke of York, and the younger brother of the "young pretender" Charles Edward, whom he was preparing to aid with a body of French troops assembled at Dunkirk when the overthrow of the Jacobites at Culloden ruined the Stuart cause in Britain. He subsequently took orders in the Roman Catholic church, and in 1747 was appointed by Benedict XIV. a cardinal, the ducal title given him by his father, though valueless in England, being recognized by the pope in the style of his nomination as Cardinal York. On the death of his brother in 1788 he assumed the title of king of England as Henry IX., gratia Dei, non voluntate hominum, as the medal struck on the occasion declared. On the occupation of the Papal States by the French he retired to Venice, and in his last years was dependent upon the British court for the means of subsistence.