Cattaraugus, a S. W. county of New York, bordering on Pennsylvania; area about 1,250 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 43,909. It is partly bounded N. by Cattaraugus creek. The surface is hilly, but there are few mountains of considerable altitude. The soil is rich and productive, yielding good crops of grain and affording excellent pasturage. The Alleghany river and the numerous creeks which flow through the county furnish motive power. Bog iron ore, peat, marl, manganese, and sulphur are found in different places; salt springs have been discovered, and petroleum springs exist in the E. part. Cattle and lumber are the principal exports, the transportation of which is greatly facilitated by the Erie railway, which traverses the county, and by the Genesee valley canal, which extends from Rochester to Olean. The county is also traversed by the Bradford branch of the Erie and by the Atlantic and Great Western railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 84,026 bushels of wheat, 160,602 of Indian corn, 783,387 of oats, 340,803 of potatoes, 144,919 tons of hay, 889,-132 lbs. of cheese, 2,700,205 of butter, 110,063 of wool, 458,723 of maple sugar, and 35,121 of hops. There were 10,087 horses, 44,4G3 milch cows, 18,583 other cattle, 26,739 sheep, and 10,738 swine.
There were 44 cheese factories, 15 tanneries, 8 currying establishments, 76 saw mills, 8 manufactories of agricultural implements, 11 of cheese boxes, 38 of carriages and wagons, 12 of furniture, 0 of iron castings, 18 of saddlery and harness, 7 of sashes, doors, and blinds, 14 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 2 of woollen goods, and 13 grist mills. Capital, Little Valley.