Charles Denis Santer Bourbakri, a French soldier, born in Paris, April 22,1816. His father, of Greek origin, and an officer in the French army, lost his life in the Greek war of independence (1827). Bourbaki was educated at St. Cyr, became a sub-lieutenant in 1836, and brigadier general in 1854. He distinguished himself in the Crimean war at Alma and Inker-man, and on Sept. 8, 1855, during the storming of the Malakhoff. Subsequently he was on the staff of the governor general of Algeria, and in August, 1857, became general of* division. In 1859 he increased his reputation at the battle of Solferino, and afterward held a command in Paris. In May, 1869, he commanded the second camp at Chalons, and in July became aide-de-camp of Napoleon III. After the outbreak of the Franco-German war, he was appointed in July, 1870, commander-in-chief ad interim of the guard in place of Ba-zaine, under whom he took an active part in the battles near Metz, Aug. 14, 16, and 18, and especially on Aug. 31 in the unavailing attempt to break through the German lines. lie succeeded in escaping from Metz in the beginning of October, and was reported to have been sent by Bazaine on a mission to the ex-empress Eugenie at Chiselhurst. The provisional authorities at Tours next placed him in command of the first army of the north at Lille; but while he was exerting himself to qualify the troops for active service, Gambetta remonstrated against his inactivity, and Bourbaki, after rebutting these charges, laid down his command.
On Dec. 6, however, he was placed at the head of part of the remnants of the defeated army of the Loire, which he reorganized around Nevers, so as to make it consist of four corps and eventually of about 150,000 men. Disappointed by Garibaldi's force not joining him for the relief of Belfort and in other projected exploits, he succeeded, nevertheless, in driving the enemy from Dijon; but his adversary, Gen. Werder, concentrated his forces at Vesoul, attacked the French flank at Villesexel (Jan. 9, 1871), gained time to intrench himself in a strong position before Belfort, and repeatedly repelled Bourbaki's impetuous attacks (Jan. 15-17). Dreading at the same time German reinforcements under Manteuffel, the French general retired to Besancon in the hope of thence reaching Lyons; but, cut off by the Germans, he was obliged to retreat over the left bank of the river Doubs in the direction of Switzerland. In the mean while he received visionarv instructions from Gambetta to resume aggressive operations with demoralized forces, worn out by forced marches over Alpine mountains and glaciers, and short of the necessaries of life.
Depressed by these circumstances and exasperated at Gambetta's taunting him with treason, Bourbaki shot himself in the head at Besancon, Jan. 27. Expressing his regret that the wound did not prove fatal, he transferred his command to Gen. Clin-chant, who, after new disasters, led the remaining 80,000 of the original 150,000 men of Bourbaki's army into Switzerland. Bourbaki has since been appointed to a military command in Lyons.