Cheshire, the S. W. county of New Hampshire, bounded S. by Massachusetts, and separated from Vermont on the W. by the Connecticut river; area, 770 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 27,265. It is drained by the Ashuelot and some smaller streams. The Connecticut is navigable by boats the whole length of the county. The surface is hilly and beautifully diversified by a number of lakes and ponds, and there are some mountains of considerable elevation, the principal of which are Grand Monadnock and Ashuelot. The soil is good, and the river bottoms especially are very fertile. The Cheshire and Ashuelot railroads traverse the county. The chief productions in 1870 were 5,369 bushels of wheat, 7,165 of rye, 146,040 of Indian corn, 104,601 of oats, 263,791 of potatoes, 56,975 tons of hay, 63,278 lbs. of cheese, 531,601 of butter, 110,529 of wool, 151,189 of tobacco, and 227,701 of maple sugar. There were 3,645 horses, 7,162 milch cows, 3,211 working oxen, 9,171 other cattle, 30,237 sheep, and 3,493 swine. There were 3 manufactories of cotton goods, 16 of furniture, 4 of sashes, doors, and blinds, 38 of wooden ware, 17 of woollen goods, 58 saw mills, 12 tanneries, 6 currying establishments, 3 manufactories of agricultural implements, 7 of boxes, 10 of carriages and wagons, 1 of glassware, 3 of iron castings, 7 of machinery, 1 of wrapping paper, and 4 of hardware.

Capital, Keene.