Christophe Louis Leon Juchault De Lamoriciere, a French general, born in Nantes, Feb. 6, 1806, died near Amiens, Sept. 10, 1865. He was educated at the polytechnic school of Paris, and at the academy for military engineers of Metz, on leaving which he joined the Algerian army and entered the corps of Zouaves at the time of its formation (November, 1830). He was placed in 1833 at the head of the office (bureau arabe) organized by Gen. A vizard for facilitating the relations with the native population. He took an active part in the capture of Constantine. In 1839 he was recalled to Paris, but returned in 1840, and gained distinction at Mouzaia, in the Mascara expedition, and at Isly. The celebrity of the Zouaves was chiefly due to him. In November, 1845, on the departure of Gen. Bugeaud, he became provisional governor general of Algeria, but went to France in 1840, in the hope of exerting a favorable influence upon the destiny of the African colony by taking part in the parliamentary discussions on the subject. He was elected to the chamber in October, 1846. Returning to Algeria soon after, he organized the expedition against Abd-el-Kader which finished the war. He made altogether 18 African campaigns, and rose to the rank of lieutenant general.
He was reelected to the chamber of deputies in 1847, and when the revolution of February, 1848, broke out, he exerted himself in favor of the formation of a new administration under Louis Philippe, and as colonel of the national guard went among the people assembled on the boulevards to allay the public excitement. But he was not listened to, and after the abdication of Louis Philippe he was slightly wounded while on his way to the Palais Royal to proclaim the regency of the duchess of Orleans. On the same evening he tendered his allegiance to the provisional government. He took his seat in the constituent assembly as a member for Sarthe, and became prominent in the committee on military affairs. During the bloody days of June, 1848, three horses were killed under him. He officiated as Gen. Cavaignac's minister of war until December, 1848, and was instrumental in introducing various measures for the benefit of Algeria. He strenuously opposed the election of Louis Napoleon to the presidency, and even questioned his right to citizenship. Being elected to the legislative assembly, he became president of the constitutional committee, and opposed the projects of the ultra-radical party.
In the course of the Hungarian struggle with Austria, he was intrusted with a diplomatic mission to Russia; but on his arrival there the Hungarians had already been crushed by the armed interference of the czar. On hearing of the overthrow of Odilon Barrot's administration (Oct. 31,1849), he returned to France and resumed his seat in the legislative assembly. After the coup d'etat of Dec. 2,1851, he was arrested and detained in the fortress of Ham until Jan. 9,1852, when he was permitted to go to Prussia. A letter of his, refusing to recognize the government of Louis Napoleon, was published in May, 1852. He afterward resided in Germany, Belgium, and England. In 1857, on the sudden death of one of his children, he was allowed to return to France; and with the consent of the French government in April, 1860, he was appointed by Pope Pius IX. commander-in-chief of the papal troops, mainly foreigners. The Sardinian government, completing the work begun by Garibaldi in the Neapolitan provinces, sent Gens. Cialdini and Fanti into Roman territory; they took Perugia, annihilated Lamoriciere's army at Castel Fidardo, Sept. 18, besieged him in Ancona, and compelled a capitulation, Sept. 29. He published an extended report of his last campaign.