Cimamon, the inner bark of the cinnamon tree (laurus cinnamomtim), which appears to have been known at a very early period. The spice obtained from it was used by the Hebrews in their religious ceremonies (Exod. xxx. 23). The Arabian merchants trading between the Red sea and the East are supposed to have curried supplies of it within the range of Phoenician and Grecian commerce. The tree is a native of Ceylon, where it grows to the height of 20 or 30 ft. It grows also in China and South America. The bark was originally collected from the tree in a natural state, as the Cingalese gave no attention to its cultivation and improvement. Not much was done toward its cultivation until the Dutch came into possession of the island, when, by clearing off the underbrush and weeds and thoroughly draining the lands, a finer quality of bark was produced. The cinnamon gardens, as they are called, cover an extent of 12,000 acres, the yield ranging between 50 and 500 lbs. per acre. For a long time the Dutch government monopolized the trade in this spice, in which period it was greatly extended. Amsterdam being the sole mart for the product, the supplies sold in that city were immense, averaging from 1692 to 1792 about 320,000 lbs. per annum.

After the British came into possession of Ceylon, the cinnamon trade fell into the hands of the East India company, by whom it was monopolized until the year 1833. It was then thrown open, but heavy duties were levied on the exportation. Cinnamon from Java a few years later, as also the cassia from China, coming into competition with the Ceylon spice, the duties have been much reduced, though the last named is superior to any other variety. The soil of Ceylon, being light and sandy, is particularly adapted to this culture. The trees are raised from the seed, and will in six or seven years afford shoots fit for peeling. There are two harvesting seasons in the course of the year: the first and principal crop is procured in May and June, the second in November. Trees two centuries old continue to bear abundantly. The "peelers," as they are called, belong entirely to the Cha-lia caste, and become by practice very skilful. The bark, after being taken in strips about 40 inches in length from the trees, is collected in bundles for the purpose of fermentation, the epidermis being easily removed. It is then slowly dried, rolling up in the form of a quill.

It is assorted according to its quality into three varieties; the inferior kinds not worth exporting are used in preparing the oil of cinnamon, which is obtained by distillation. The best stick cinnamon is almost as thin as paper, of a light yellowish brown color, and of a sweet aromatic taste. That most esteemed is produced from the late government gardens in Ceylon, which since 1840 have been sold to private capitalists. That least valued comes from the forests. - Cinnamon is used medicinally as an aromatic and moderate astringent. It contains a small quantity of tannin, upon which its astringency depends. Though seldom prescribed alone, it enters into many officinal preparations. The oil is used in perfumery, pharmacy, and sometimes instead of the spice. Ground cinnamon is frequently adulterated with cassia (which is often substituted for it), and with baked wheat flour, sago meal, or East India arrowroot. The adulteration is not difficult of detection. The Chinese cinnamon, which is the product of the cinnamomum cas-sia, is properly called cassia; but it is often designated by the name of the superior article, and sold as cinnamon.

Sometimes it is found little inferior to the real cinnamon. - The imports of cinnamon into Great Britain for 1870 amounted to 2,215,434 lbs., valued at $1,264,-375; for 1871, to 1,584,G38 lbs., valued at $720,730. Of the imports for 1871,18,512 lbs. were from Egypt, 75,413 from China, 1,430,-518 from Ceylon, and 60,195 from other countries. Nearly the entire export from Ceylon is to Great Britain.

Cinnamon.

Cinnamon.