Czenstochowa, Or Czenstochan, a town of Russian Poland, in the government of Piotrk6w, near the Prussian frontier, on the Warta, and on the Cracow and Warsaw railway; pop. in 1867, 14,167. It consists of an old and a new town, and the suburb St. Barbara. Its chief manufacture is chaplets and images for the pilgrims from Poland and other Slavic countries, who annually visit the shrine of the monastery of St. Paul, on the Klareberg (Pol. Jasna Gora), between the old and new towns, which contains a dark brown image of the Virgin, the miraculous power of which is a matter of general belief among the Slavic people. The monastery, having been pillaged by the Hussites in the 15th century, was fortified, and in 1655 withstood a siege of the Swedes of Charles Gustavus, who had occupied the whole country, and were here repulsed by a few friars. It was bravely defended by the confederates of Bar under Pulaski in 1771, when the old town was reduced to ashes. It was taken by the French in 1806, newly fortified by them in 1812, and finally given up to the Russians, who destroyed the fortifications.