Drenthe, a N. E. province of the Netherlands, bordering on the Prussian province of Hanover and the provinces of Groningen, Friesland, and Overyssel; area, 1,031 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 108,056. It lies on each side of the watershed between the Zuyder Zee and the Dollart, and its surface is generally more elevated than that of the surrounding provinces. Several streams rise within it, the principal of which are the Hunse and the Drentsche Aa, and there are a number of small lakes. The soil is poor and sandy, and only about half of it is capable of cultivation; the remainder consists of heaths, bogs, marshes, and sand wastes. The chief industry is the breeding of horses, which are sent as foals into Friesland to be reared. Cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry of fine quality are also raised. On the western border are the colonies of Willems-oord and Frederiksoord, where large numbers of paupers are employed in brick-making, spinning, weaving, tanning, cutting peat, reclaiming waste lands, etc. Assen, the capital, is connected with Meppel, the chief town, by canal and railway.

In the south part of the province is the strong fortress of Koevorden.