Espirito Santo, a S. E. province of Brazil, on the Atlantic, hounded N. by the province of Bahia, S. by that of Rio de Janeiro, and W. by Minas Geraes; area, 14,049 sq. m.; pop. about 65,000. A very large proportion of the inhabitants are savages, dwelling in the interior, mostly descendants of the ancient Tupis and Aimores, the latter being called Boto-cudos. The capital is Victoria. A branch of the Serra do Mar, here called Serra dos Aimores, forms the natural western boundary, and throws off in regular succession a number of spurs, some of which gradually lower down to the coast, where they form abrupt rocky bluffs. The valleys between these hills are often very little broader than the rivers by which they are drained. There are some streams of considerable magnitude, the principal of which are the Mucury, which separates the province from that of Bahia, and the Doce. But few of the rivers are favorable to navigation, owing to their rapidity, irregular depth, and many cataracts. There are numerous lakes, mostly in connection with the rivers which empty directly into the ocean. There are few ports worthy of the name, Benevente being the best, and able to receive ships of considerable tonnage at any time of the tide.
Victoria has an excellent harbor, but, on account of the barrenness of the surrounding country, will probably never be of much importance; and the mouth of the Doce is so dangerous as to render it useless for a port. Impervious forests cover the regions adjacent to the rivers; the plains toward the coast are pretty equally divided into meadow land and marsh; and altogether but little of the country has been brought under cultivation, notwithstanding the fertility of the soil, particularly N. of Victoria and S. of the Itapemirim. The chief products are maize, beans, coffee, man-dioca, cotton and sugar in small quantities, and cacao, which is principally planted in the low grounds. Various attempts have been made to colonize the Doce, where is a great agricultural region; the chief cause of failure has been the ferocity of the aboriginal tribes. The rivers afford a plentiful supply of fish, nowhere surpassed for numbers of species and delicacy of flavor; and hosts of turtles are found along the coast. Rosewood is extensively exported, with some beans and other produce, and some coffee and sugar.
The climate is generally hot, humid, and unhealthy.