George Smith, an English oriental scholar, born about 1825. In 1866, while examining the large store of Assyrian paper casts in the British museum, he discovered an inscription of Shalmaneser II., which gave an account of the war against Hazael. In 1867 he assisted in preparing a new volume of " Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia " for the British museum. Thereafter the study of the cuneiform texts became his sole occupation. His principal earlier discoveries, published in the " Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology," are: a tablet noticing the eclipse of June 15, 763 B. C.; notices of the Israeli-tish kings Azariah, Pekah, and Hoshea; accounts of the conquest of Babylonia by the Elamites in 2280 B. C.; a curious religious calendar of the Assyrians; and a tablet containing the Chaldean account of the deluge, which he afterward discovered to be the eleventh in a series of twelve giving the history of an unknown hero, whom he believes to be the same as the Nimrod of the Bible. In 1871 he published, at the cost of Mr. Fox Talbot and Mr. J. W. Bosanquet, his great work on the history of Asshur-bani-pal, giving the cuneiform texts, transcriptions, and translations of the historical documents pertaining to this reign.
In 1873 the proprietors of the "Daily Telegraph" sent him on an exploring expedition to Nineveh, and in 1874 he went there again. He obtained over 3,000 entire or fragmentary inscriptions, and many other objects of groat importance. He published in 1875 an account of these explorations, and contributed a volume on the history of Assyria to the series of "Ancient History from the Monuments;" also "The Chaldean Account of Genesis" (German translation by H. Delitzsch, with notes by F. Delitzsch, 1876), a series of legends from the cuneiform inscriptions resembling the Biblical accounts. He is now (1876) exploring the Euphrates valley.