Hasdrubal , or Asdrubal (in Punic, probably, " he whom Baal aids "), the name of a number of Carthaginian naval and military commanders, celebrated in the history of the three Punic wars, of whom the following are the most distinguished: I. Son-in-law, and successor in the command in Spain, to the great Hamilcar Barca, after whose death in 229 B. C. he continued his operations with the assistance of the young Hannibal, founded New Carthage (now Cartagena, in Murcia), and concluded a treaty with the Romans, which made the Ebro the boundary of the Roman and Carthaginian possessions in the peninsula. He was killed by a Gallic slave in revenge for the death of his master, and was succeeded in command by Hannibal (221). II. Son of Hamilcar, was left in Spain when his brother Hannibal started on his expedition across the Pyrenees and Alps to Italy (218). Being afterward prevented from following him by a defeat on the Ebro which he suffered from an army under Publius and Cneius Cornelius Scipio, he fought in Africa against Syphax, king of a Numidian tribe, and again in Spain, where he was successful against his former adversaries, both of whom fell (211). Two years later he was defeated by the son of Publius, the afterward renowned Scipio Africanus, though he could not be prevented from crossing the Pyrenees while hastening to the assistance of his brother in Italy. Arrived in Umbria, he lost his army and life on the banks of the Metaurus. between the modern Pesaro and Sinigaglia, being defeated by the Romans under C. Claudius Nero and M. Livius (207). His head is said to have been cut off and thrown into Hannibal's camp.
III. Son of Gisco, commander in the second Punic war, fought in Spain, 214-206 B. C, was defeated together with Mago by P. C. Scipio toward the end of this period, and retired to Africa, where by giving to Syphax his daughter So-phonisba, already promised to Masinissa, he caused the enmity of Masinissa to the Carthaginians. Together with Syphax he was twice defeated by Scipio, who had landed in Africa in 204. The condemnation to death pronounced against him by the irritated people, which did not deter him from continuing in arms against the enemies of his country, was reversed after the arrival of Hannibal. Finally, however, being driven to despair by the public hatred, he terminated his life by poison. IV. Commander against Masinissa and in the third Punic war, when he twice defeated the Roman consul Manilius, bravely opposed Scipio Africanus the younger, and after the taking of Carthage by the latter retired into the citadel, and finally, with a small number of his own troops and a host of deserters, to the temple of AEsculapius. Further resistance being impossible, he secretly went over to the camp of Scipio to implore his mercy.
The conqueror spared his life, but showed him to the deserted defenders of the temple, and he saw his wife throw her children and then herself into the flames of the burning edifice. Having adorned the triumph of Scipio, he spent the remainder of his life as a captive in Italy.