Hermannstadt (Hung. Nagy-Szeben), a city of Transylvania, capital of the land of the Saxons, on the Zibin, 70 m. S. S. E. of Klau-senburg; pop. in 1869, 18,998, of whom 69 per cent. were Germans. It consists of an upper and a lower town, and is surrounded by a wall with five gates. The principal public edifices are the churches, the palace of Baron Brucken-thal, a Lutheran and a Roman Catholic gymnasium, barracks, hospital, theatre, town hall, and government offices. The palace contains a picture gallery, a library, and a museum of Roman antiquities. The ramparts have been converted into fine promenades. There are considerable manufactures of linen and woollen, pottery, etc. Hermannstadt is the seat of the Lutheran chief consistory, and of a Greek bishop, the head of the Greek church of the Rou-man nationality. It was founded in the 12th century by a German colony. In the course of the 15th and 16th centuries it was often besieged by the Turks, and was taken by them in 1536. At the beginning of the 17th century it was subjected to great calamities by Gabriel Batori. Several battles between the Austrians and the Hungarians under Bern were fought there at the beginning of 1849. In the early days of March the town was occupied by the Russians, but taken by Bern, March 11. A conflict between the Russians and Hungarians on July 20 resulted in the occupation of the town by the former on the following day, but on Aug. 4 Bern reconquered it.
After the overthrow of the Hungarian revolution Her-mannstadt was for a time the capital of Transylvania.