John Adams Dix, an American soldier and politician, born in Boscawen, X. II., July 24, 1798. During the war of 1812-15 he served on the frontier with the rank of ensign and as adjutant of a battalion. He established himself about the year 1828 as a lawyer at Coo-perstown, N. Y., and became identified with the democratic party. In 1830 he was appointed adjutant general, and in 1833 secretary of state and superintendent of common schools. In 1842 he was elected to the assembly; and in 1845 he was chosen to fill a vacancy in the United States senate, caused by the election of Silas Wright as governor. On the question of slavery he was the exponent of the views of the free-soil section of the democratic party in New York, whose candidate for governor he was in 1848, but was defeated. In 1853 he was made assistant treasurer of the United States in the city of New York, but soon resigned. On Dec. 10, 1860, Howell Cobb resigned his post as secretary of the treasury, and Mr. Dix was appointed in his place. New Orleans was at the time in virtual possession of the secessionists; two revenue cutters were there, and the new secretary ordered them to New York. The captain of one of them, after consulting with the collector at New Orleans, refused to obey.
Secretary Dix thereupon telegraphed to the lieutenant to arrest the captain, and to treat him as a mutineer in case he offered any resistance, closing his despatch with the words, "If any one attempts to haul down the American flag, shoot him on the spot." When the civil war broke out, Mr. Dix was appointed major general of the New York militia, and on May 16, 1861, major general of United States volunteers. He was placed in command of the department of Maryland, and in 18G2 was transferred to Fortress Monroe, having the command of the seventh army corps. In 1863 he was stationed at New York, where he was military commander during the riots which ensued upon the president's order for the draft. During 1864-'5 he commanded the department of the east. In September, 1866, he was appointed minister to France, which place he resigned in 1868, and returned to New York. In 1872 he was nominated by the republican party as governor of New York, and was elected. He is the author of " Resources of the City of New York" (1827); "Decisions of the Superintendent of Common Schools of New York, and Laws relating to Common Schools" (1837); "A Winter in Madeira" (1851); " A Summer in Spain and Florence " (1855); and two volumes of " Speeches."