Jose De San Martin, an Argentine general, born at Yapeyś, Feb. 25, 1778, died in Boulogne, France, Aug. 17, 1850. He received a military education in Spain, served with distinction at Baylen, and became a colonel in the Spanish army. He returned to South America on the outbreak of the war of independence, and organized the Argentine forces. After repeated victories over the royalists, he was made in 1814 commander-in-chief of the ill-fated expedition to Upper Peru against the troops of the viceroy of Lima. Withdrawing to the province of Cuyo, he soon raised an army, with which he crossed the Chilian Andes, and defeated the royalists under Oso-rio in the battle of Chacabuco, Feb. 12, 1817. Declining the presidency of Chili, he defeated the Spaniards again at Maypu, April 5, 1818, and Chilian independence was secured. In 1820 he marched into Peru, accompanied by Bernard O'Higgins, president of Chili, entered Lima, drove the Spaniards into the interior, declared Peru independent (1821), and assumed the dignity of protector, which he was forced to resign in 1822. Having retired to private life, he went to Europe, and lived in England, the Netherlands, and France.