Lonis Jules Trochu, a French soldier, born at Palais, Brittany, in 1815. He studied at the academy of St. Cyr and at the special military school for the staff at Paris, and graduated in 1810 as a first lieutenant. After serving under Bugeaud in Algeria, he became Saint-Arnaud's aide-de-camp in the Crimea and commanded a brigade at Sebastopol. In 1859 he distinguished himself as general of division at the battle of Solferino. In 1867 appeared anonymously his L'armee francaise en 1867 (20th ed., 1870), exposing the weakness of the military resources, which gave umbrage to the emperor. It was only after his selection by Palikao for the organization of troops at the camp of Chalons that Napoleon reluctantly consented (Aug. 17, 1870) to his being made governor and chief commander of Paris. As such Trochu ordered the expulsion of the German residents, numbering about 80,000. On the establishment of the republican government (Sept. 4) he was placed at its head. In repeated proclamations he promised the rescue of the besieged city; and when its capitulation was unavoidable, he resigned the command in favor of Gen. Vinoy (Jan. 20, 1871), though remaining at the head of the government.

He attempted to defend his administration in the assemblies at Bordeaux and Versailles, of the latter of which he was a member till the spring of 1872, when he retired in consequence of the unsatisfactory issue of a libel suit against the Figaro newspaper, which had attacked his course. In 1873 he left the army with a pension, and he has since been engaged at Tours in writing a military work.