I. Karl Ignaz, a German physician, born in Bohemia, July 24, 1796, died at Patschkau, Prussian Silesia, Oct. 2, 1853. He studied in Prague and Berlin, where he graduated in 1817. He was connected for some time with the veterinary school in Berlin, and subsequently with the medical college in Stettin, and was medical councillor in various places till 1850, when he retired. He was a high authority on epidemic and cattle diseases. His principal works are: Encyklopadie der Thier-heilhunde (Berlin, 1820); Lehre von den Lun-genkrankheiten (1823); Zum Schutze der Ge-sundheit auf Schulen (1836), which opened a protracted controversy, during which more than 70 treatises were published on the subject, and led to the restoration of gymnastic exercises in Prussian gymnasia; Untersuchun-gen uber die Rinderpest (1831), which saved Silesia and other countries from a renewed outbreak of the cattle disease; a treatise on the cholera, in the Jahrbucher fur wissenschaft-liche Kritik which produced great difference of opinion among physicians, and resulted in the removal of the military cordons which had been established to arrest the spread of the epidemic; and Die Pest des Orients (1837). His autobiography, edited by his son, appeared in 1864.
II. Franz, a Roman Catholic theologian, son of the preceding, born in Berlin, March 12, 1821. He studied in Breslau, Munich, and Rome, took his doctor's degree in Munich in 1844, and became a pastor in Breslau and spiritual director at the seminary of priests. The latter office was conferred upon him after the publication of his Entwick-elung und Fortschritt in der Kirchenlehre (Breslau, 1847). He edited the Schlesisches Kirchenblatt from 1852 to 1864, and published various works, including translations of the writings of Balmes and other Spanish philosophers, and narratives of his travels in Spain. He also translated Calderon's plays for religious festivals (Geistliche Festspiele, 9 vols., Ratisbon and Breslau, 1856-'66).