Louis Francois Michel Raymond Wolowski, a French economist, born in Warsaw, Aug. 31, 1810. He studied in France, and, after taking part in the Polish revolution of 1830, settled in Paris, where he founded in 1833 the Revue de legislation et de jurisprudence. In 1834 he was naturalized, and subsequently he married a sister of Léon Faucher. In 1839 he became law professor at the conservatoire des arts et metiers, and in 1848 a member of its council; and he was elected to the constituent and subsequently to the legislative assembly, retiring in 1851. He then resumed his professorship, and founded the first credit foncier bank, ultimately known as the credit foncier de France. In 1855 he succeeded Blanqui in the academy of moral and political sciences. On July 2, 1871, he was elected in Paris to the national assembly, and in 1872 was adjoined to the superior council of commerce, agriculture, and industry. He is known as an opponent of Thiers's protectionist views. His works include De l'organisation du travail (1845); Etudes d'economie politique et de statistique (1848); De l'organisation du credit fonder (1849); Henri IV. économiste: Introduction de l'industrie de la soie en France (1855); Introduction de l'economie politique en Italie (1859); Les finances de la Russie (1864); La banque d'Angleterre et les banques d'Ecosse (1867); La liberté commerciale et les resultats du traité de commerce de 1860 (1868); and L'or et l'argent (1870).