Mahmoud I, sultan of Turkey, a son of Mustapha II., born in Constantinople Aug 6 1696,died Dec.13 1754. He was raised to the Ottoman throne in1730, after the deposi-tion of his uncle Ahmed III. The janizaries, who had revolted against the latter and made Mahmoud sultan, exacted from him a promise to continue the war begun against Nadir Shah of Persia. His military operations, however, were disastrous, and he finally concluded a peace in 1736. In the mean while the Russians had begun hostilities, and in 1737 they took Otchakov and Kinburn, while their Austrian allies invaded Wallachia. The latter were however defeated by the Turks at Krotzka on the Danube in 1739, upon which the court of Vienna made peace on disadvantageous terms, relinquishing not only what its forces had recently taken, but also Belgrade, captured during a former war. The Russians obtained a more favorable treaty, retaining all their conquests. In 1743 hostilities again broke out between Persia and Turkey, and were closed by a treaty unfavorable to the latter. Notwithstanding the wars in which his army was engaged, Mahmoud was a man of peaceful disposition, and Turkey was comparatively well governed under him.

He was succeeded bv his brother Osman III.