Meadow Mouse, the common name of the small rodents of the genus arvicola (Lacep.). The molars are (3/3)-(3/3), and rootless; the ears are short, nearly hidden in the fur; the muzzle is broad and rounded; the tail shorter than the body, cylindrical and hairy, soles naked anteriorly; the skull short, deep, and broad; whiskers'in five horizontal series. The common meadow mouse of this country (A. riparia, Ord) is 4 1/2 in. long, and the tail about 1 1/2; the feet large and scaly; hair rather short; the eyes small, the thumb of the fore foot obsolete, and mammae four inguinal and four pectoral; the color above is dark brown, varied with reddish and yellowish brown; ashy plumbeous below; tail and feet dusky. Many other species are described in vol. viii. of the report on the "Pacific Railroad Survey." The European species are called also campagnols and roles; the largest is the hypudams am-phibius (111.), which is aquatic, inhabiting the hanks of streams and digging in the marshes for roots. The campagnol (H. arvalis, 111.), of the size of a mouse, is yellowish gray above and whitish gray below; it lives in holes dug in the ground, in which it collects food for the winter.

The economic meadow mouse (H. (pconomus, 111.) lives in Siberia, laying up ample winter stores, and sometimes migrating in large troops like the lemmings. - The meadow mice are spread over the northern hemisphere of America, Europe, and Asia, as yet not having been found in South America and Africa; they are abundant in the mossy swamps in the vicinity of the,arctic circle. Some are aquatic, having the antitragus of the ear so developed as to act as a valve under water; others live in dry places and high lands, where they do much mischief by gnawing the bark of trees and destroying grain and fruit; they do not climb, and are not dormant in winter, but retreat at that time to their well stored burrows. They are very prolific, and hence are often the source of considerable loss to the fanner; in 1818 and 1819 most of the harvest of Holland, and in 1837 of that of an entire province of Italy, was destroyed bvthem; in a German province in 1822," 1,500,000 were captured in 14 days. These animals in their turn furnish;i supply of food to carnivorous mammals, birds, and reptiles.

For an account of their habits, see Audubon and Bachman's Quadrupeds of North America".

Campagnol (Hypudams arvalis).

Campagnol (Hypudams arvalis).