Melos (The Ancient Name, Now Restored), Or Milo, an island in the Grecian archipelago, one of the Cyclades, belonging to the kingdom of Greece, lving about 65 m. E. of the coast of the Peloponnesus, in lat. 36° 40' N, Ion. 24° 23' E.; length 13 m., greatest breadth 8 m.; area, 65 sq. m.; pop. about 3,500. On the N. coast is a deep bay which forms one of the best harbors in the Levant, and on this was once the flourishing town of Melos. The island is of volcanic origin, and is rugged and mountainous, and in parts naked and sterile. Mt. Calamos is still a semi-active volcano, emitting smoke and sulphurous vapors; and hot springs and mines of sulphur and alum are found in various places. Mt. St. Elias, in the S. W. part, is 2,538 ft. above the sea. The valleys and low grounds are very fertile, and when cultivated produce corn, wine, oil, cotton, and fruits in abundance; but the lowlands are malarious and the water brackish, and the island is now almost depopulated. Extensive ruins mark the site of ancient Melos. It is overlooked by Castron, a village on a rocky height above the N. entrance of the bay, which is now the seat of the local government. - Melos was first colonized by the Phoenicians, and afterward by the Lacedaemonians. It was rich and populous, but was ruined by the Peloponnesian war, during which the capital was captured by the Athenians, its adult males were put to death, and its women and children carried off as slaves, 416 B. C. The principal relics of antiquity are tombs and subterranean vaults, some of which contain 15 or more sarcophagi.
The celebrated statue of the Venus of Milo was found in 1820 in the vicinity of Melos, together with three statues of Hermes. - Anti-Melos, a small mountainous island 6 m. N. W. of Melos, is uninhabited save by wild goats. With this and some other islands, Melos forms an eparchy of the Cyclades.