Mikhail Bakunin, a Russian revolutionist, born at Torzhok, Tver, in 1814. He belongs to an old family, left the military service for the study of philosophy, and became conspicuous by his affiliations with revolutionary Frenchmen, Germans, and Poles, and as a resolute and reckless agitator. He resided after 1841, when he left Russia, in Germany, France, and Switzerland; and, declining to return to Russia, his estates were confiscated. In 1847 he was expelled from France at the request of the czar for having made an inflammatory speech in favor of a Polish-Russian alliance for the overthrow of Russian despotism. After the revolution of 1848 he was prominent at the Slavic congress in Prague and in the ensuing conflict, after which he fled to Berlin. Expelled from Prussia, he appeared in May, 1849, as a member of the revolutionary government and as the most daring leader of the outbreak in Dresden. Captured at Chemnitz after the suppression of the insurrection, he was incarcerated for eight months in a Saxon fortress.

His sentence to death in May, 1850, being commuted to perpetual imprisonment, he was surrendered to the Austrian government, which likewise condemned him to death and commuted the sentence, and which in its turn gave him up to Russia, where he was confined in St. Petersburg and in Schliisselburg till after the Crimean war, when he was sent to Siberia. He availed himself of a permission to settle in the Amoor Country for escaping to Japan, and reached the United States early in 1861, after which he returned to Europe, lately residing chiefly in Switzerland, still engaged more or less in revolutionary and journalistic enterprises. He is the author of Russische Zu-stande (Leipsic, 1847), and of other publications.