Angnst Ferdinand, a German mathematician, born at Schwlpforta, near Naumburg, Nov. 17. 1790, died in Leipsic, Sept. 20, 1868. He graduated at the university of Leipsic in 1815, and was a professor there for 50 years. He remodelled the observatory, and in his Der barycentrwhe Calcul, eh, neuss Hulfsmittel zur analytischen Behandlung der Geometric (Leipsic 1827), established the new principle the affinities of figures. His Lehrluch der (2 vols., 1837) gives a comprehensive of the intimate connection between statics and geometry. His most celebrated astronomical works are Die Elemente der Mechanik des Himmels (1843), and Die Haupt-sdtze der Astronomie (4th ed., 1860).
Theodor, a German philologist, son of the preceding, born in Leipsic, June 22, 1821. He graduated at Leipsic in 1852, and in 1859 became professor of Scandinavian languages and literature there. In 1865 he accepted a similar position at Kiel. He has edited many old Norse works.
Paul Hcinrkn Angnst, a German author, brother of the preceding, born in Leipsic, May 31, 1825. He studied theology and philosophy, and became a teacher in Leipsic and a preaoher at the church of the university. From 1853 to 1865 he was director of an educational institution for booksellers, and subsequently of one of the principal schools in Leipsic. His miscellaneous waitings include stories, poetry, and a tragedy, and Katechis-mus der deutschen Literaturgcschichte (Leipsic, 1857; 4th ed., 1871).