Omer Pasha (Michael Lattas), a Turkish soldier, born at Plaski, Croatia, in 1806, died in Constantinople, April 18, 1871. The son of an Austrian official, he became a cadet in a frontier regiment, but ran away in 1826 and went to Bosnia, where he became a Mohammedan and took the name of Omer. He was appointed tutor to the children of Hussein Pasha, who in 1834 sent him to Constantinople, where he became an army officer and writing master to Abdul Medjid. He assisted in reorganizing the army, was made colonel in 1839, served against Ibrahim Pasha, and was promoted to brigadier general. He was prominent in the pacification of Albania and Kurdistan, in 1848 commanded the Turkish troops in Moldo-Wallachia, and in 1849-'50 completely crushed the insurrection in Bosnia. In 1851 he restored tranquillity in Herzegovina, and in 1852 was sent against the Montenegrins. On the outbreak of the Crimean war he was appointed generalissimo. In November, 1853, the Russians attacked him at Oltenitza, but were driven back with great loss. Their subsequent operations in front of Widin were equally unsuccessful. In May, 1854, he was besieged by Paskevitch in Silistria, but at the end of 40 days the Russians were compelled to give up their attempts after severe losses.

In August he entered Bucharest, and early in 1855, acting in conjunction with the allies, he removed more than 35,000 men of his Danu-. bian army to Eupatoria in the Crimea, and began the fortification of that place, where he was attacked on Feb. 17 by a Russian force estimated at 40,000, which he repulsed. He joined the allied army before Sebastopol, and in the spring marched to the relief of Ears, which was captured before he could reach it. Afterward as governor general of Bagdad he repelled the Kurd and Arab invasion. He was convicted of frauds and of inflicting arbitrary sentences of death, and banished to Kharput in 1859, but was soon restored to his command. He invaded and pacified Montenegro in 1862, and was stationed at Shumla till March, 1867, when he was ordered to crush the Cretan insurrection; but his violence and cruelty caused his recall in October, and he was withdrawn from active service. Pending the arrival of the new minister of war from Bagdad in 1868, he held that office^ till November, 1869, and subsequently remained a member of the ministry without a portfolio.