Orizaba, an inland city of Mexico, in the state of Vera Cruz, 160 m. E.S. E. of Mexico; pop. about 20,000. It is on a delightful plain 3,975 ft. above the sea. It has good streets and some fine houses. Of the 12 churches, the parochial alone is noteworthy. There is a very good exchange, a house of refuge, a theatre, two hospitals, and several primary and high schools. The city has many commercial houses, some industrial establishments, and 12 mills. It is one of the principal stations on the railway from Mexico to Vera Cruz. The chief articles of export are tobacco, coffee, sugar, rum, honey, chilli, and tropical fruits.- - Orizaba is said to be one of the most ancient towns in America, having existed for many centuries under the name of Izhuatlan. It was seized by Montezuma I. in 1457, and remained subject to the Aztec kingdom until the time of the Spanish conquest. A large number of Spaniards were massacred in 1521 by the natives, who submitted peacefully to the conquerors in 1522. In 1862 Orizaba was the headquarters of the French army of intervention; and in the same year the Mexican troops were completely overthrown in an encounter with the French at the Cerro del Borrego, a high mountain at the edge of the city. - The Pico de Orizaba, or Citlaltepetl, an extinct volcano, according to recent measurements 17,176 ft. high, and covered with perpetual snow, is 6 m.

N. of the city.