A District Of British India, in the Punjaub, occupying the N. W. extremity of the Indian empire, bordering on Cashmere, Lahore, and the Afghan province of Jelalabad; area, 1,800 sq. m.; pop. about 500,000. The Khyber, Mohmund, Swat, and Khuttuk mountains form the boundary on all sides except the east and southeast, on which the Indus flows. The province is exceedingly well watered, and is irrigated by canals. The climate is very hot in summer. The soil is naturally fertile; vegetation continues throughout the year, and two harvests are gathered. The principal crops are wheat, barley, maize, millet, ginger, turmeric, tobacco, cotton, various fruits, and an excellent kind of rice called bara, because grown on ground irrigated by the Bara river. The road from Hindostan to Cabpol and Khorasan by the Khyber pass leads through Peshawer; and the province has been much exposed to the inroads of the wild inhabitants of the mountains, II. A city, capital of the province, on the river Bara, in lot. 33° 59' N., Ion. 71° 40' E., 12 m. ' E. of the E. extremity of the Khyber pass, and 150 m. E. S. E. of Cabool; pop. about 50,000. It is surrounded by high mud walls, strengthened with bastions, and defended by a fort.
When Peshawer was ruled by the Afghans, it contained 100,000 inhabitants; but Runjeet Singh destroyed the fine houses of the chief citizens, desecrated the mosques, and laid waste the surrounding country. The exactions of the Sikhs were subsequently so heavy that its restoration was prevented, but since its occupation by the British in 1849 all restrictions upon it have been removed, and the town has rapidly increased. Peshawer was founded by the emperor Akbar. Half of the city was destroyed by fire in May, 1875.
Fort of Peshawer.