1837 - United States "Wild Cat" crisis, all banks closed.

1839 - Bank of England saved by Bank of France. Severe in France where 93 companies failed for six millions.

1844 - England, State loans to merchants. Bank of England reformed.

1847 - England, failures, 20 millions ; discount, 13 per cent.

1857 - United States, 7,200 houses failed for 111 millions.

1866 - London, Overend-Gurney crisis; failures exceeding 100 mil-lions.