Modelling, in a general sense, signifies the art of constructing an original pattern, which is to be ultimately carried out on an enlarged scale, or copied exactly.

1932. When models are constructed to give a miniature representation of any great work, elevation, or topographical information, they are executed in detail, with all the original parts in just and due proportions, so that the work may be conducted or comprehended better; and if the model is a scientific one, viz., relating to machinery, physical science, etc, then it requires to be even still more accurate in its details. In fact, all models should be cor structed on a scale which should be appended to them, so that a better idea may be obtained of the proportions and dimensions.

1933. In the earliest ages, modelling in clay - which was sometimes subsequently coated with wax - was much practised: afterwards sculpture succeeded; but it still depended on modelling in a measure, as it now does, for its excellence. Few, indeed, of our great works of art are executed without some kind of a model in addition to the design - we had almost written, none; but we know that statues and reliefs have been executed without any other aid than that furnished by the design alone.

1934. The most celebrated models of modern, and we believe surpassing any of former times, are M. Brunetti's "Ancient Jerusalem," Mr. E. Smith's "Modern Jerusalem," both of them examples worthy of being imitated, whether for the excellence of the work, the faithfulness of the model, or the patience and scientific knowledge displayed in their construction.

1935. The material required are plaster of Paris, wax, whiting, putty, clay, pipe-clay; common and factory cinders; sand of various colours; powdered fluor spar, oyster-shells, bricks, slate, cinders, and glass; gums, acacia and tragacanth; starch; paper - white and brown, cardboard and millboard; cork sheets, cork raspings, and old bottle corks; gutta percha; leather and leather chips; wood; paints, oil, water, and varnish; moss, lichen, ferns, and grass; talc, window and looking-glass; muslin and net; chenille; carded wool; tow; wire; hay and straw; various varnishes, glue, and cements.

1936. The tools consist of brushes for paints, varnishes, and cements; two or three bradawls; a sharp penknife; a chisel, hammer and punches; scissors; and pencil.

1937. Caves maybe readily modelled in cork, wood, starch-paste, or cinders covered with brown paper soaked in thin glue.

1938. To Construct Them Of Cinders

Arrange the cinders, whetner common or factory, in such a manner as to resemble the intended design; then cover such parts as require it with brown paper soaked in thin glue until quite pulpy. When nearly dry, dust over with sand, powdered brick, slate, and chopped lichen or moss, from a pepper-box; touch up the various parts with either oil, water, or varnish colours; and if necessary, form your trees of wire covered with brown paper, and moss glued on.

1939. When a cave is constructed in the way we have pointed out, on a large scale, and the interior sprinkled with powdered fluor spar or glass, the effect is very good by candle-light.

1940. Stalactites may be represented by rough pieces of wood, which must be smeared with glue, and sprink-kled with powdered fluor spar, to glass.