To Soften Glaziers' Putty

I

Glaziers' putty which has become hard can be softened with the following mixture: Mix carefully equal parts of crude powdered potash and freshly burnt lime and make it into a paste with a little water. This dough, to which about J part of soft soap is still added, is applied on the putty to be softened, but care has to be taken not to cover other paint, as it would be surely destroyed thereby. After a few hours the hardest putty will be softened by this caustic mass and can be removed from glass and wood.

II

A good way to make the putty soft and plastic enough in a few hours so that it can be taken off like fresh putty, is by the use of kerosene, which entirely dissolves the linseed oil of the putty, transformed into rosin, and quickly penetrates it.

Substitute for Putty

A cheap and effective substitute for putty to stop cracks in woodwork is made by soaking newspapers in a paste made by boiling a pound of flour in 3 quarts of water, and adding a teaspoonful of alum. This mixture should be of about the same consistency as putty, and should be forced into the cracks with a blunt knife. It will harden, like papier maché, and when dry may be painted or stained to match the boards, when it will be almost imperceptible.

Waterproof Putties

I

Grind powdered white lead or minium (red lead) with thick linseed-oil varnish to a stiff paste. This putty is used extensively for tightening wrought-iron gas pipes, for tightening rivet seams on gas meters, hot-water furnaces, cast-iron flange pipes for hot-water heating, etc. The putty made with minium dries very slowly, but becomes tight even before it is quite hard, and holds very firmly after solidification. Sometimes a little ground gypsum is added to it.

The two following putties are cheaper than the above - mentioned red lead putty:

II

One part white lead, 1 part manganese, one part white pipe clay, prepared with linseed-oil varnish.

III

Two parts red lead, 5 parts white lead, 4 parts clay, ground in or prepared with linseed-oil varnish.

IV

Excellent putty, which has been found invaluable where waterproof closing and permanent adhesion are desired, is made from litharge and glycerine. The litharge must be finely pulverized and the glycerine very concentrated, thickly liquid, and clear as water. Both substances are mixed into a viscid, thickly liquid pulp. The pegs of kerosene lamps, for instance, can be fixed in so firmly with this putty that they can only be removed by chiseling it out. For puttying in the glass panes of aquariums it is equally valuable. As it can withstand higher temperatures it may be successfully used for fixing tools, curling irons, forks, etc., in the wooden handles. The thickish putty mass is rubbed into the hole, and the part to be fixed is inserted. As this putty hardens very quickly it cannot be prepared in large quantities, and only enough for immediate use must be compounded in each case.

V

Five parts of hydraulic lime, 0.3 parts of tar, 0.3 parts of rosin. 1 part of horn water (the decoction resulting from boiling horn in water and decanting the latter). The materials are to be mixed and boiled. After cooling, the putty is ready for use. This is an excellent cement for glass, and may be used also for reservoirs and any vessels for holding water, to cement the cracks; also for many other purposes. It will not give way, and is equally good for glass, wood, and metal.

VI

This is especially recommended for boiler leaks: Mix well together 6 parts of powdered graphite, 3 parts of slaked lime, 8 parts of heavy spar (barytes), and 8 parts of thick linseed-oil varnish, and apply in the ordinary way to the spots.

PUTTY FOR ATTACHING SIGN-LETTERS TO GLASS

See Adhesives, under Sign-Letter Cements.

PUTTY, TO REMOVE

See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.