Quince-Tree, the Pyrus Cydonia of Linnaeus, but which is considered by Miller, and other botanists, as a distinct genus of fruit-trees, under the name of Cydonia; and consists, according to them, of three exotic species, namely
1 .The oblonga, or Oblong-Quince, the fruit of which is pear-shaped, and lengthened at the base.
2. The malifornia, or Apple-Quince, having oval leaves, which are of a woolly texture on the lower side.
3. The Lusitanica, or Portuguese Quince, that has obverse, oval leaves, somewhat woolly on the upper side.
All these species are cultivated in Britain; though the most valuable is the Portuguese Quince ; the pulp of which, on being stewed or baked, assumes a fine purple colour, and becomes less austere than that of the others. It is propagated by layers, suckers, or cuttings; but the last method only is calculated to produce the greatest abundance of delicious fruit. The cuttings ought, therefore, to be planted early in autumn and, if the weather be dry, it will be advisable to water them frequently, in order to facilitate their striking root. In the second year, they should be removed into the-nursery; and set, at the distance of one foot from each other, in rows three feet apart. In the course of two or three years, they may be transplanted to the place of their ultimate destination, and which.should always be contiguous to some river, or the soil at least ought to be moist; as they will thus produce a greater quantity of large fruit, than it" they had been set in dry situations ; though such as are. obtained in the latter, possess a finer flavour. Quince-trees require very little pruning : the most important part of their management consists in clearing their stems from suckers ; and in cutting off such branches as interfere with each other. All luxuriant shoots, that strike upwards' from the middle of the tree, must be lopped, lest the head be too much crowded with wood, which might prevent the growth of the fruit.—Quince-trees are also highly esteemed, as stocks, on which pears may with great advantage be grafted, or budded.— This operation greatly improves the taste and flavour of those pears, which arrive at maturity in the summer and autumn ; but it is by no means proper for winter-fruit, which is thus rendered hard and stony. In the colder climates of Europe, Quinces are not eatable in a raw state : nevertheless, they possess antiseptic properties, when dressed, and contain 'a considerable portion of acid and mucilaginous juice. Though their pulp be somewhat difficult of digestion, they seldom disagree with the weakest stomach. The liquor expressed from them, has frequently been given in small quantities, with great success in nausea, vomiting, and similar complaints.— This fruit is generally boiled and eaten with sugar, in which form it may also be usefully employed in cases of dysentery.—One quart of the juice of Quinces, mixed with Otoe pound of sugar, and fermented, afford a delicious wine : on adding to the same quantity, one pint of the best French brandy, and four ounces of sugar, a celebrated liqueur is prepared on the Continent, and which is greatly prized as a cordial and stomachic, when taken in the small quantity of two or three spoonfuls, before breakfast.—Ry boiling the kernels of quinces in water, a mucilage is extracted, which is often used in medicine as a proper substitute fur that of gum-arabic.