The position of end calls for notable physical and men-tal qualities on the part of the player and for a knowledge of the fine points of the game that can result only from long experience. Of all the men on the rush line, his area, of play is the widest and his duties the most varied.

There is no rule of weight to which the end must conform, but he must be speedy. An active, resourceful man, with a quick eye, steady nerve and fine judgment, will often surpass a much heavier man in this position, yet for many of the end's duties weight and strength are an advantage, provided that these qualities are coupled with quickness and intelligence.

An end must possess great speed and endurance to enable him to make long dashes up and down the field in pursuit of punts, and occasionally to relieve the back in carrying the ball. He needs strength and weight to enable him to sustain singly, as he frequently must, the charge of several men in a body, and to break up rapidly moving interference. He needs a quick eye, long practice and good judgment to solve the tricks and fake plays of his opponents, for many of these tricks are especially designed for his deception. He must ever be on the alert for plays down the sidelines, that no one may be outside of him to receive a long pass or secure a short kick.

On the offense, when the team lines up, the end takes his place close to his tackle and just opposite the outside hip of the opposing tackle. He must place himself in a good position to aid in boxing up or in blocking out the opposing tackle, and to secure this result there is no better way than to charge hard and low with the shoulder at some point between the hip and knee of the opponent. The end must go into his man hard, else he will be warded off by the hands of the opposing player, who will then slip between him and his tackle.

If the attack is toward his side of the line, the end must aid his tackle in boxing the opposite tackle, in case the point of attack is outside the end position, and in blocking out the opposing tackle when the point of. attack is inside the end position. He should pay no attention to the opposing end, leaving that player to be taken care of by the interference coming ahead of the runner. As soon as the runner has safely passed the opponents' line, the end should follow the man with the ball and make himself useful as the occasion permits.

When the attack is made on the opposite side, the end should follow back of his own line, becoming general "safety man." It is his duty to get in promptly to save the ball in case of a fumble, to protect the runner from a rear attack and to pull or shove the runner along or interfere for him, as the opportunity presents itself.

When his team is on the defensive, the work of the end is very different. He takes up a very different position on the line, moving away from his tackle from three to four yards, the distance depending on the formation of the opponents. He should play as closely as possible, just far enough out to make certain he cannot be boxed in. He should not leave much space between himself and the tackle, as this will make a weak point in the defense. Some men play so widely that, figuratively speaking, they need a field glass or a telephone connection to find out what is going on.

The end should get ready for a very quick start, taking practically the position of a sprinter on his mark, the tips of his fingers just touching the ground, one foot slightly behind the other. The instant the ball is snapped, the end must start, like the sprinter at the crack of the pistol. He should go directly forward from four to six yards, depending on the direction of the opponents' attack, and then turn toward the center of the line. When the play is coming in his direction, the end confronts a situation calling for the exercise of all his physical and mental powers in the highest degree. If the play gets by him, outside, there is a clear field beyond the runner. The end must remember that he is responsible for all the territory outside of his position and he must always turn the runner in toward the center of the line. The end has to meet the charge of several moving men and has to meet it in a way either to break up the interference effectively, thus enabling him to attack the runner, or, failing in this, to compel the runner to turn in towards tackle, where he can be more easily stopped by the other players. It is a situation calling for the greatest intensity of action, as well as for high moral qualities of self-control and courage. The end in this situation must allow no one to block him but must successfully ward off with hands and arms all attacks and, if possible, break through and stop the runner.

When the attack of the opponents is directed at the other side of the line, the end must always follow in behind the opposing line and tackle the runner if possible, watching out, however, for delayed passes and criss-cross plays, especially designed to escape his vigilance and so enable the runner to get around his end. The end must go in quickly and be on hand in case of a fumble by an opponent, but must not be over-anxious and so likely to be fooled when a trick is sprung.

When his own side punts, it is the duty of the end to get down the field with the ball to prevent a return run. In doing this, if the opposing end is blocking on the line of scrimmage, it is better that the end start from his position close to tackle, and go directly down the field, taking care to keep outside of the ball and the man who is catching it. If the opposing end drops back about ten yards, the end should move out a similar distance just before the ball is to be snapped, and should go down from that position, using his hands for warding off the opposing end, who will attempt to block or check him.

In going down on a punt, the end must determine about where the ball will fall by the general movements of the men in the backfield or by snatching a glimpse at the ball over his shoulder as he runs. He should be very careful not to over-run the ball, which he is very likely to do in the case of a short kick. The end should always keep well outside the catcher, so that, if he does not down the man himself, he can at least turn him in toward his own men, who are following down the field close after him.

When the opponents are about to kick, the end should drop back about ten yards and about ten yards outside of a point directly behind his own tackle, prepared to watch out for a fake kick or to go down the field with the opposing end if the kick does take place, interfering with his opponent as he attempts to tackle the catcher. Sometimes it is good policy to block the opposing end just as soon as it can be done, but it is usually more effective to go down the field and interfere with him as he is about to make the tackle, for then he will have no other opportunity to get the runner.

Much more might be said about the duties of the end on offense, but this feature will be fully explained in that portion of the bock devoted to team play.