Oldham, a parliamentary, municipal, and county borough of Lancashire, on the Medlock, 7 miles NE. of Manchester, 5 SSE. of Rochdale, and 38 ENE. of Liverpool. It has grown since 1760 from a small village, through its proximity to the Lancashire coalfields and the extension of its cotton manufactures. It has nearly 300 mills, with more than 12 million spindles, which consume one-fifth of the total British imports of cotton; and the other manufactures include fustians, velvets, silks, hats (once a leading industry), cords, etc, besides huge weaving-machine works, one employing 7000 hands. The town-hall (1841) is a good Grecian edifice, enlarged in 1879 at a cost of £29,000; and there are the lyceum (1854-80), a school of science and art (1865), public baths (1854), an infirmary (1870-77), and the Alexandra Park of 72 acres (1865). Oldham received its charter in 1849. It was enfranchised by the Reform Bill of 1832, and returns two members, the parl, borough (which extends into Ashton-under-Lyne parish) covering 19 1/4 sq. m., the municipal only 7§. Pop. of the former (1891) 183,871; of the latter (1801) 12,024; (1841) 42,595; (1881) 111,343; (1901) 137,238.