I. Matins

Characterized by head more or less elongated; parietal bones in-sensibly approaching each other; condyles of the lower jaw placed in a horizontal line with the upper molar teeth, exemplified by -

Sect. 1. Half-reclaimed dogs, hunting in packs; such as the Dingo, the Dhole, the Pariah, etc.

Sect. 2. Domesticated dogs, hunting in packs, or singly, but using the eye in preference to the nose; as, for instance, the Albanian dog, Deerhound, etc.

Sect. 3. Domesticated dogs, which hunt singly, and almost entirely by the eye. Example: the Greyhound.

II. Spaniels


Head moderately elongated; parietal bones do not approach each other above the temples, but diverge and swell out, so as to enlarge the forehead and cavity of the brain.

Sect. 4. Pastoral dogs, or such as are employed for domestic purposes. Example: Shepherd's Dog.

Sect. 5. Water dogs, which delight in swimming. Examples: Newfoundland Dog, Water-Spaniel, etc.

Sect. 6. Fowlers, or such as have an inclination to chose or point birds by scenting only, and not killing. Examples: th3 Setter, the Pointer, the Field-Spaniel, etc.

Sect. 7. Hounds, which hunt in packs by scent, and kill their game. Examples: the Foxhound, the Harrier, etc.

Sect. 8. Grossed breeds, for sporting purposes. Example: the Retriever.

III. House Dogs


Muzzle more or less shortened, skull high, frontal sinuses considerable, condyle of the lower jaw extending above the line of the upper cheek teeth. Cranium smaller in this group than in the first and second, in consequence of its peculiar formation.

Sect. 9. Watch dogs, which have no propensity to hunt, but are solely employed in the defence of man, or his property. Examples: the Mastiff, the Bulldog, the Pug dog, etc.

As before remarked, this division is on the whole founded on natural laws, but there are some anomalies which we shall endeavor to remove. For instance, the greyhound is quite as ready to hunt in packs as any other hound, and is only prevented from doing so by the hand of his master. The same restraint keeps him from using his no3e, or he could soon be nearly as good with that organ as with the eye. So also Cuvier defines his sixth section as "having an inclination to chase and point birds" whereas they have as great, and oftener a greater, desire for hares and rabbits. Bearing therefore in mind these trifling defects, we shall consider the dog under the following heads:

Chap. I. Wild and half-reclaimed dogs, hunting in packs.

Chap. II. Domesticated dogs, hunting chiefly by the eye, and killing their game for the use of man. 2

Chap. IIL Domesticated dogs, hunting chiefly by the nose, and both finding and killing their game.

Chap. IV. Domesticated dogs, finding game by scent, but not killing it; being chiefly used in aid of the gun.

Chap. V. Pastoral dogs, and those used for the purposes of draught

Chap. VI. Watch dogs, House dogs, and Toy dogs.

Chap. VII. Crossed breeds, Retrievers, etc.

Characteristics 9