An order has its several members proportioned to one another by a scale of 60 equal parts, which are called minutes. If the height of buildings were always the same, the scale of equal parts would be a fixed quantity - an exact number of feet and inches. But as buildings are erected of different heights, the column and its accompaniments are required to be of different dimensions. To ascertain the scale of equal parts, it is necessary to know the height to which the whole order is to be erected. This must be divided by the number of diameters which is directed for the order under consideration. Then the quotient obtained by such division is the length of the scale of equal parts - and is, also, the diameter of the column next above the base. For instance, in the Grecian Doric order the whole height, including column and entablature, is 8 diameters. Suppose now it were desirable to construct an example of this order, forty feet high. Then 40 feet divided by 8 gives 5 feet for the length of the scale; and this being divided by 60, the scale is completed. The upright columns of figures, marked H and P, by the side of the drawings illustrating the orders, designate the height and the projection of the members. The projection of each member is reckoned from a line passing through the axis of the column, and extending above it to the top of the entablature. The figures represent minutes, or 6oths, of the major diameter of the shaft of the column.
31. - Grecian Styles, - The original method of building among the Greeks was in what is called the Doric order: to this were afterwards added the Ionic and the Corinthian. These three were the only styles known among them. Each is distinguished from the other two by not only a peculiarity of some one or more of its principal parts, but also by a particular destination. The character of the Doric is robust, manly, and Herculean-like; that of the Ionic is more delicate, feminine, matronly; while that of the Corinthian is extremely delicate, youthful, and virgin-like. However they may differ in their general character, they are alike famous for grace and dignity, elegance and grandeur, to a high degree of perfection.
32. - The Order: (Fig. 2,) is so ancient that its origin is unknown - although some have pretended to have discovered it. But the most general opinion is, that it is an improvement upon the original wooden buildings of the
Facade Of St. Peter's, Rome.
Fanciful Origin Of The Doric
Grecians. These no doubt were very rude, and perhaps not unlike the following figure.
Fig 1. - Supposed Origin of Doric Temple.
The trunks of trees, set perpendicularly to support the roof, may be taken for columns; the tree laid upon the tops of the perpendicular ones, the architrave; the ends of the cross-beams which rest upon the architrave, the triglyphs; the tree laid on the cross-beams as a support for the ends of the rafters, the bed-moulding of the cornice; the ends of the rafters which project beyond the bed-moulding, the mutules; and perhaps the projection of the roof in front, to screen the entrance from the weather, gave origin to the portico.
The peculiarities of the Doric order are the triglyphs - those parts of the frieze which have perpendicular channels cut in their surface; the absence of a base to the column - as also of fillets between the flutings of the column; and the plainness of the capital. The triglyphs should be so disposed that the width of the metopes - the space between the triglyphs - shall be equal to their height.
33. - The Intercolumniation: or space between the columns, is regulated by placing the centres of the columns under the centres of the triglyphs - except at the angle of the building; where, as may be seen in Fig. 2, one edge of the triglyph must be over the centre of the column.* Where the columns are so disposed that one of them stands beneath every other triglyph, the arrangement is called mono-triglyph and is most common. When a column is placed beneath every third triglyph, the arrangement is called diastyle; and when beneath every fourth, arœostyle. This last style is the worst, and is seldom adopted.
Fig. 2. - Grecian Doric.
34. - The Doric Order: is suitable for buildings that are destined for national purposes, for banking-houses, etc. Its appearance, though massive and grand, is nevertheless rich and graceful. The Patent Office at Washington, and the Treasury at New York, are good specimens of this order.
35. - The Ionic Order. (Fig. 3.) - The Doric was for some time the only order in use among the Greeks. They gave their attention to the cultivation of it, until perfection seems to have been attained. Their temples were the prin-
* Grecian Doric Order. When the width to be occupied by the whole front is limited, to determine the diameter of the column.
The relation between the parts may be expressed thus :
x = 60a / d(b+c) + (60 - c)
Where a equals the width in feet occupied by the columns., and their inter-columniations taken collectively, measured at the base; b equals the width of the metope, in minutes ; c equals the width of the triglyphs in minutes ; d equals the number of metopes, and x equals the diameter in feet.
Example. - A front of six columns - hexastyle-61 feet wide ; the frieze having one triglyph over each intercolumniation, or mono-triglyph. In this case, there being five intercolumniations and two metopes over each, therefore there are 5 x 2=10 metopes. Let the metope equal 42 minutes and the triglyph equal 28. Then a = 61; b = 42 ; c = 28 ; and d = 10; and the formula above becomes
= 5 feet = the diameter required.
Example. - An octastyle front, 8 columns, 184 feet wide, three metopes over each intercolumniation, 21 in all, and the metope and triglyph 42 and 28 as before. Then cipal objects upon which their skill in the art was displayed; and as the Doric order seems to have been well fitted, by its massive proportions, to represent the character of their male deities rather than the female, there seems to have been a necessity for another style which should be emblematical of feminine graces, and with which they might decorate such temples as were dedicated to the goddesses. Hence the origin of the Ionic order. This was invented, according to historians, by Hermogenes of Alabanda; and he being a native of Caria, then in the possession of the Ionians, the order was called the Ionic.
= 7.35 30/1502 feet = the diameter required.
The distinguishing features of this order are the volutes or spirals of the capital; and the dentils among the bed-mouldings of the cornice: although in some instances dentils are wanting. The volutes are said to have been designed as a representation of curls of hair on the head of a matron, of whom the whole column is taken as a semblance.
The Ionic order is appropriate for churches, colleges, seminaries, libraries, all edifices dedicated to literature and the arts, and all places of peace and tranquillity. The front of the Custom-House, New York City, is a good specimen of this order.
36. - The Intercolumniation: of this and the other orders - both Roman and Grecian, with the exception of the Doric - are distinguished as follows. When the interval is one and a half diameters, it is called pycnostyle, or columns thick-set; when two diameters, systyle; when two and a quarter diameters, eustyle; when three diameters, diastyle; and when more than three diameters, arczostyle, or columns thin-set. In all the orders, when there are four columns in one row, the arrangement is called tetrastyle; when there are six in a row, hexastyle; and when eight, octastyle.