This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
1. The art of carpentry consists of the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to properly execute all classes of structural work composed of wood.
2. The province of carpentry is a most extensive one, and the subject is generally qualified by prefixing a term denoting the class or character of the carpentry implied; thus, we have house carpentry, bridge carpentry, and ship carpentry. Wagon making, carriage making, car building, etc. also partake of the principles and practice of the same trade.
3. The instruction in this course will be limited to that of house carpentry, and it will include the essential features which define the anatomy of construction of which all classes of buildings are more or less composed, except those classified as fireproof structures, in which the members are made of iron or steel.
4. The carpenter is distinguished from the joiner in that his efforts are directed towards the formation and disposition of the "bones," or constituent parts, of the "skeleton" of the building, or to such parts as have reference to structure only. His operations all tend towards the stability and efficiency of the framework of the edifice, while those of the joiner tend towards clothing or encompassing the framework with finished woodwork, so as to render the building more agreeable and habitable.
The joiner does not commence his labors until the framework has been completed; therefore, it will be seen that the strength and vitality of the building largely depends on the effective character of its carpentry; the work of the joiner may be entirely removed, and yet the structure would remain intact, so far as the anatomy of its form and arrangement would be concerned.
5. The art of carpentry comprises three divisions, each of which is incorporated in a successful structure, namely, analytic, descriptive, and constructive.
The first and second divisions are contained in the theory, while the third constitutes the practice of carpentry. The first includes the analysis of the forces which generate the stresses in the framework, which is demonstrated by the laws of mechanics, and the disposition of the material for efficient resistance, which is regulated by a knowledge of the strength of materials.
The second defines the lines and methods deduced by geometric rules for laying out the work; while the third comprises the manual operations of cutting, framing, arranging, and uniting the various timbers which constitute the structure.