This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
Store Front. In Fig. 72 (a) is shown the treatment usually given a store front, to provide a proper entrance to the store, adequate display windows for goods, and a private entrance to the hallway which communicates with the rooms or apartments over the store. The illustration shows a building 25 feet wide, the side walls of which are of brick 1G inches in thickness, and are built out to the line a b, in (b), leaving the entire front of the structure, on the ground floor, to be constructed of framework and glass. The brick wall above the first story is carried upon a steel girder, which extends entirely across the building from one side wall to the other, and is set with its outer edge on the building line a b. A private entrance and hallway is partitioned off 3 feet from the left-hand side, and the partition separating this hallway from the store abuts an iron column A, which, by giving additional support to the girder, materially shortens its span.
113. As the construction of a frame and transom sash, the framing and hanging of a door, etc., as herewith required, have all been previously considered, we will confine our attention to the construction of the windows and cornice of the store front.
The exterior line of the show windows B may be on the line of the brick wall a b, or it may be permitted to project beyond the building line from 1 to 2 feet, as shown in Fig. 72 (b), according to circumstances. In either case, it is necessary to place the door frame of the entrance from 1 foot 6 inches to 2 feet 6 inches inside the building line a b, in order to secure a proper depth to the show windows. When the window front is on the building line, or when it is framed and finished down to the ground, as shown in the elevation (a), the corners of the window fronts usually consist of more or less ornate, turned columns or angle beads C, extending from the stone sill to the under side of the cornice which they appear to support. These columns are rabbeted on the inside, in order to fit the sash above, and the paneling below.
The paneling is framed together and set in place between the rabbets in the columns, and small joists are carried across to receive the floor of the window. This floor finishes against the panel work on the inside, about 6 inches below the edge of the sash. The top of the window above the columns is finished with a wooden cornice, which also covers the steel beams supporting the upper walls.
114. The details of the construction of the cornice are shown in Fig. 73, where the steel girder is seen at c, consisting of two 12-inch beams bolted together, with the wood cornice df projecting from the face of the wall in front of them. This cornice is first formed in skeleton form, as shown by the pieces a, b, c, g, the last one g being cut to fit the form of the girder e, thereby giving the cornice a bearing over the opening. This piece is also anchored to the iron beam by means of bolts passing through the girder, and secured to the skeleton of the cornice by means of cleats nailed to the sides. The moldings and soffit of the cornice are then applied to the skeleton work as shown, and the projecting roof is tinned, or flashed with copper, which in either case must extend up on the wall and enter the brick joints, as shown at h.
115. The entrance doors to the store are constructed in the same manner as the front doors described in Art. 44, with the exception of the transom, which should be hinged on the bottom in this case, and provided with proper hardware to permit it to open inwards, in order to give ventilation to the interior.
When a show window projects from the wall of a building, but is not carried all the way to the ground in panels, as shown in Fig. 72 (a), the floor of the window is usually carried on ornamental wood or iron brackets; secured in the brickwork below the window, from which they project to the front edge of the framework.
116. There are many other details of joiners' work which have not been separately described, but the principles of construction upon which their framing is based are precisely the same as those herein discussed. The student must learn to apply principles rather than to memorize methods, and when a problem in any form of construction confronts him, he should not try to solve it in a certain manner, simply because it has always been done so before, but should endeavor to comprehend the conditions governing the case, and to study the form of joint and framing best suited to each particular case, and act intelligently, independent of traditional methods.