This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
105. Butts, or hinges, are used in hanging doors, inside shutters, lids of chests, boxes, etc. The butt generally used in hanging doors is a loose pin butt; the pin being loose, it can be readily taken out with the fingers, and the door can thus be removed without unscrewing the hinges. To properly hang the door, two hinges, and in case of heavy doors three hinges, are required, the top one being secured 6 inches below the top of the door, and the bottom one, 10 inches above the bottom of the door. Fig. 64 (a) shows a horizontal section through the door casing at the hinge. At b is the door jamb, back of which are the grounds f, extending to the plaster line j; c shows the door trim, and g shows the door stop, against which the door a is closed; the projection of the hinge s i to the center of the pivot is the same as s' i' of the elevation of the hinge shown at (b), where one flap of the hinge is seen let in and screwed to the edge of the door. This projection of the hinge s' i' when the door is opened, as shown dotted at e, causes the door to swing twice the distance s' i' thereby causing it to clear the trim c - a condition always requiring consideration when ordering the hinges.
106. Fig. 65 shows an inside window-frame casing at r, to which the elbow shutter b is hung. The shutter as it stands in the box is shown at b; while at a it is shown dotted in position as closed across the window; c shows the flap shutter in line with b when open, and d shows its position when folded in the box. In hinging the elbow shutter b to the casing e, the whole thickness of the hinge is let into the edge of the shutter, and the flap of the hinge is screwed to the face of the casing e. The knuckle of the hinge should just project beyond the face of the shutter b, as at z. When the hinge is placed as shown, making a' b' 1/2 inch from the edge of casing to face of shutter, then, when b swings on its hinges to the position a, the edge of the shutter will be at c', which is 3/16 inch from b', or 11/16 inch from a'; therefore, in making the shutters, the width must be taken from c' in order to show the 1/2-inch margin of the casing when the blinds are open. The flap hinge if J is screwed to the inside face of the shutters - keeping- the knuckle of the hinge all on the elbow shutter b; this is done to prevent the edge of the flap shutter d from striking, when folding the two shutters in the box as previously explained.
Hinging Outside Blinds. Fig. 66 shows a plan of the blinds of a frame house; b shows the position of the blind shutter when closed, and c shows the blind shutter opened; at a is seen the hanging stile to which one-half of the hinge is screwed, as shown at h. The hinge is in two parts, shown at (b), and consists simply of an iron strap d with a socket to fit around the pivot f which is secured to the other half of the hinge; at s is seen the edge of the iron strap d, which is screwed to the blind b and with the pivot f in the socket e.
Outside blinds of brick houses require a hinge very little different from that of a frame house, but the hinge must throw the blind out farther, in order to clear the brick corner.