This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Detail (de'tal). Enlarged portion, a section or part of a plan or elevation, usually drawn at large scale for the use of the workmen.
Diagonal (di-ag'o-nal). A straight line drawn from opposite angles, dividing a figure into two angular parts. Diameter (dl-am'e-ter). The distance through the shaft of a column from side to side; generally referring to the lateral distance through the lower part of a shaft immediately above the base moulding.
Diana Propylaea (di-an'a prop-Me'a). One of the smaller Greek temples at Eleusis, showing a simple use of columns in antis. (See Plates XXXV and XXXVI).
Diastyle (dia-stil). The term describing a Classic arrangement of columns, having the space of four diameters from corner to center of their shafts, and where the intercolumniation measures three diameters. (See Fig. 1?).
Die (di). The cubical part of the pedestal between its base and cap; the dado. (See Fig. 3).
Diminution (dim-i-nu'shon). The gradual reduction in size towards the end of an object or column. Tapering.
Diocletian (dl-o-kle'shan). A Roman emperor, whose best known remaining architectural monument is the famous Baths in Rome, in the ruins of which have been found late (about 290 A. D.) Roman examples of the various Orders. (See Plate LVI).
Dipteral (dip'te-ral). A structure consisting of or furnished with a double range of columns. (See page 14S; also ends of Fig. 34).
Ditriglyphic (di-trl-glif'ic). An interval or space between two columns, admitting of the use of two triglyphs on the entablature. (See Fig. 18).
Domitian (do-mi'sh-yan). A Roman emperor ruling 81-96 A. D.
Doric (dor-ik). The oldest, heaviest, and simplest of the three principal Greek and Roman Orders. (See Fig. 50).
Drip (drip). A moulding or projecting member intended to throw off rain water and prevent its running down the wall of a building. (See H and M, Fig. 46).
Eaves (evz). The edge or lower part of a roof projecting beyond the surface of the wall to throw off water. (See Fig. 59).
Eccentric (ek-sen'trik). Not having the same center; referring to circles, which, though related, are not struck from the same center.
Echinus (e-ki'nus). (a) Properly the egg-and-dart ornament cut or painted on the quarter-round moulding that occurs in column capitals, (b) The convex projecting moulding-of eccentric curve in section in Greek examples-supporting the abacus of the Doric capital; hence the corresponding feature in the capitals of the other Orders, or any moulding of similar profile to the Doric echinus. (See Fig. 5).
Egg-and-Dart (see Echinus). A Classic moulding decorated with an oval, egg-shaped ornament alternating with a narrow, pointed, dart-shaped form, used only to decorate an echinus. (See I, Plate XL).
Eleusis (e-lu'sis). A city of Attica famed for the celebration of the mysteries of Demeter.
Encarpus (en-kar'pus). A sculptured ornament in imitation of a festoon of fruits, leaves, or flowers, or of other objects, hanging between two points. (See Figs. 119 and 130).
Engaged (cn-ga'jd). Attached; especially a circular column built one-third or one-quarter into a wall, the remainder projecting beyond and free from the wall face. (See B. Fig. 100).
Entablature (en-tab'la-tur). That part of a lintel construction, or of a Classical structure, consisting of horizontal members, which rests upon supporting columns or vertical members and extends upward to the roof. In the Classic Orders it comprises the architrave, frieze, and cornice. (See tig. 3).
Entasis (en'ta-sis). A swelling or outward curve along with an inward taper in the vertical profile of the shaft of a column. (See Fig. 87).
Epicurius (ep-i-ku'ri-us). A famous physician. A temple to Apollo Epicu-rius erected at Phigalia. (See Fig. 64).
Epidauros (ep-i-dau'ros). A town in Argolis, chief seat of the worship of ∆sculapius, containing several examples of late Greek (architecture, particularly a tholos or circular temple. (See Plate L and Fig. 78).
Epistylium (e-pi'stl-li-um) or Epistyle (e'pi-stll). The architrave of a Classic entablature. See Architrave.
Erechtheum (e-rek-the'um). An Ionic temple on the Acropolis at Athens, begun 479 B. C, completed 408 B. C. (See Figs. 68, 80-85).
Eustyle (u'stil). Denoting an arrangement of columns having an inter-columniation or space between column shafts of two and one-fourth diameters. (See Fig. 19).
Exedra (eks'e-dra). A raised, semicircular or elliptical platform with seat facing towards the center, often used in public places as a memorial. Extrados(eks-tra'-dos). The exterior curve of an arch. (See Fig. 96).
Facade (fa-sad'). The front view or elevation of an edifice, or any one of its principal faces if it has more than one. (See Fig. 45).
Facure (fa'shur). A plain facing of varying width defined by angles or mouldings upon each side, as in the architrave of the Classic entablature.
Fascia (fash'i-a). Any broad, flat member or moulding with but little projection, as the horizontal bands or broad fillets into which the architraves of the Ionic and Corinthian entablatures are divided. (See Plates V and XI).
Faustina (faus-ti'na). Wife of Antoninus Pius; notorious for her licentiousness. (See Plate LIV).
Fillets (fil'ets). Small mouldings having the appearance of narrow, flat bands. When on wall surfaces, they are rectangular in projecting section. They are generally used to separate other ornaments and mouldings. (See Fig. 5).